Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Geomechanics Seminar Report

Geomechanics (from the Greek prefix geo- meaning "earth"; and "mechanics") involves the geologic study of the behavior of soil and rock. By definition, rock mechanics is the theoretical and applied science of the mechanical behavior of rocks in the force fields of their physical environment. In practice, so-called “rock engineering” is concerned with the application of principles of engineering mechanics to the design and construction of structures of any type either on or in the rock, such as tunnels, mine shafts, underground excavations, open pit mines, road cuts,dams, skyscrapers, waste repositories,and oil or gas wells.
Though initially developed for mining and civil engineering purposes, geomechanics found its way into the oil and gas industry in the ’80s in order to improve hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations. In the contemporary petroleum industry, geomechanics is defined as the discipline that integrates rock mechanics, geophysics, petrophysics, and geology to quantify the response of the Earth to any changes in state of stress, pore pressure, and formation temperature.

Geomechanics: The Oil and Gas Industry’s Missing Link 

Although systematic application of rock mechanics in the oil and gas industry is relatively new, it was recognized and appreciated by many oil companies in a short period of time and has become a fast-growing field due to its applicability and effectiveness in reducing nonproductive time (NPT). 
As the virgin state of stress is disturbed by different oil and gas activities, the rock’s mechanical state changes, too, and consequently influences drilling, completions, and production performance. These changes can result in serious and unexpected cost and time overruns if not properly predicted and managed. Dodson et al. (Offshore, Vol. 64, No. 1, 2004) conducted a survey of Gulf of Mexico wells and reported wellbore stability issues were the cause of almost 40% of drilling-related NPT, resulting in an annual cost of around USD 8 billion.
As a result of experiencing significant improvements in drilling and production operations by utilizing geomechanics, it has hence become an important and integral part of each and every field development plan, from the early stages of exploration to even after field abandonment. With the recent boom in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources, the use of geomechanics principles has become even more imperative due to the sensitivity and complexity of these reservoirs. Geomechanics is playing a critical role in successfully maximizing shale gas production by helping optimize the use of hydraulic fracturing technology. 
Geomechanical applications in the oil and gas industry include porepressure prediction; helping ensure cap-rock integrity; field problem diagnosis; formation properties evaluation; in-situ stresses estimation; drilling performance evaluation; wellbore stability; borehole trajectory optimization; sand production prediction and control; underbalanced drilling feasibility; fractured reservoir characterization; and production maximization affected by natural fractures, hydraulic fracturing, fluid and steam injection, reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and casing shear and collapse. It’s a long list! Clear knowledge of how to apply geomechanics appropriately will increase exploration and development efficiency in both conventional and unconventional resources.

Geomechanical Modeling: Turning Impossibilities Into Possibilities 

To conduct any of the aforementioned studies using rock mechanics, the first step is to construct a geomechanical Earth model (GEM). A GEM consists of six core components that need to be either calculated or estimated using field data:
Vertical stress, δv (often referred to as the overburden stress)
Maximum horizontal stress, δHmax
Minimum horizontal stress, δHmin
Stress orientation, Azi δHmax
Pore pressure, Pp
Rock mechanical properties
Modeling techniques in geomechanics encompass analytical, experimental, and numerical methods, each having their pros and cons. Generally, numerical models have higher accuracy over analytical ones but require additional input data and more time. Analytical techniques are in return quicker with less complexity. Experimental models are based on physical and mechanical laboratory tests on rock core samples. It is usually costly and time consuming to perform such tests, though they do provide valuable information about rock properties.
As a generic workflow, constructing a 1D geomechanical model starts with rock mechanical property estimation using petrophysical logs in conjunction with core test results. There are different empirical models to make a strength profile; however, laboratory data are required to calibrate these models.
The second step is building a continuous overburden profile using density logs.
Pore-pressure prediction using logs and available well test data (or seismic data if available) is the next step. Minimum horizontal stress can be calculated using either empirical equations or fracturing data (LOT [leak-off tests]/X [extended] LOT or minifracturing tests) or ideally, a combination of both. Drilling incidents such as ballooning and mud losses can help to constrain the minimum horizontal stress and fracture gradient.
The last steps are determining azimuth and magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress. This is the most complicated part of geomechanical modeling, as no direct way of measuring δHmax is available. Analyzing wellbore failures such as breakouts and drilling-induced tensile fractures from image logs is one of the existing techniques to determine a reasonable range for δHmax and find its orientation. Using caliper logs, sonic logs, and laboratory measurement of elastic strain recovery are alternative techniques.
Many field examples have proved that geomechanical analyses can open opportunities for drilling into harsh and challenging environments which previously looked impossible. In an example in southeast Asia, where drilling a vertical well was identified as impossible due to lack of a safe operating mud weight window, the well was made possible by geomechanical analysis that led to changing the well trajectory to the safest orientation in a specific formation and thereby widening the window. Geomechanics can also improve casing design and provide a wider mud weight window for drillers. There are examples in Northwest Shelf Australia where geomechanical modeling reduced the number of casings, resulting in significant cost savings for the operators.
In the context of production from naturally fractured reservoirs, a GEM can make a real difference in maximizing production by identifying critically stressed fractures which are, in fact, the productive fractures. Identifying the orientation of these fractures enables optimization of drilling orientation to intersect the maximum number of them. Field examples in the Middle East and southeast Asia have shown notable increases in production using these types of studies.

Monday, May 2, 2016

xMax Technology Seminar Report

What is xMax Technology ?
xG Technology has developed a network that uses available free spectrum (instead of costly licensed spectrum) and an all-IP architecture that is less expensive to deploy and operate.
xMax, as a physical layer technology, can be configured for use in wired and wireless products; designed for deployment at any frequency; configured for licensed and unlicensed spectrum, or in a spectrum sharing fashion.
Importantly, it can improve range and battery life in such applications and uses the radio spectrum in a very power efficient manner. The original xMax system is a hybrid technology in the sense that it has aspects of both narrowband and wideband communication systems; it uses pulse position modulation (PPM) and ultra wideband communications (UWB), but also employs a narrowband carrier.

The use of the carrier at the receiver basically eliminates the difficult synchronization and search problems inherent with PPM and UWB systems. Low-cost mobile voice and broadband data services, xG Technology, Inc. has developed an innovative wireless communication system (aka “xMax”) that is capable of delivering mobile voice over IP (VoIP) and broadband data services in the 902-928 MHz unlicensed band.

From a business model perspective xG Technology is targeting this scalable radio access network (RAN) solution towards new-entrant service provider partners, such as cable companies, competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs), satellite companies, foreign incumbent local exchange carriers, etc. that may be seeking to deliver mobile VoIP/data services to the market on a nationwide or selected market basis. The inclusion of voice capability in addition to broadband data in the xMax RAN solution is a critical differentiation that will be emphasized throughout this white paper. This is because despite the media fascination with the iPhone™ and other smartphones and despite the increasing demand for mobile broadband data services, mobile voice remains and will continue to remain the major revenue earner for mobile operators.
Note the following market facts:
The GSM Association estimates that of the 4B mobile users worldwide, roughly 90% are voice only users Thus we see that despite the hype, mobile broadband data revenues are less than 20% of that of mobile voice. Even using bullish industry assumptions for mobile broadband data growth, it is likely to take 9-10 years before mobile broadband data revenues are on parity with mobile voice revenues

xMax Working

Take the energy issue first. xMax uses a modulation technique designed to allow more data to be transmitted on a single sine waves than is required with typical modulation technologies. So instead of using more than 100,000 sine waves to transmit one bit of data, xMax uses a ratio closer to 1:1. This technique would therefore be more efficient and keep energy levels very low, which would mean devices that receive the signals wouldn't consume much power. To solve the distance problem, xMax uses frequency channels in the sub-gigahertz range, which can penetrate obstacles such as walls or trees. But channels below 1GHz are very narrow, which means it is difficult to pack large amounts of data into them. xMax fulfills the need for a radio technology that According to the inventor Joseph Bobier "xMax's unique signal profile is a perfect fit for low frequency channels that have previously been unsuitable for wireless broadband." The technology will benefit rural ISPs due to the lower number of base stations required. xMax, because it has 20 times the range of Bluetooth, could challenge that technology. Other possibilities are enterprise WLANs and metropolitan networks. Nowadays it is used for VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol).
In order to meet the objective of providing low-cost mobile voice and broadband data services the xMax carrier class cognitive radio solution has been developed around commonly used and open Internet protocols including IP, RTP, UDP and IP. In addition, it was designed to operate in both unlicensed spectrum, such as the 902-928 MHz ISM band, and licensed spectrum. As a result of these design considerations, xMax includes responsive opportunistic-use technology based on “Identify And Utilize (IAU) techniques capable of combating in-band interference encountered in the unlicensed spectrum, and extends the SIP and RTP protocols to the wireless domain. Among VoIP signaling protocols, SIP is regarded as very bandwidth-inefficient from a signaling overhead standpoint. In fact, SIP signaling can consume up to 400% of the VoIP payload bandwidth, an unacceptable figure for mobile networks.
To increase the efficiency of SIP signaling, yet maintain 100% standards compatibility with external VoIP systems and soft switches, xG has created patent pending SIP compression technology for the xMax system that reduces SIP overhead bandwidth from 400% to 66% on the over the air links and backhaul links from the Base Stations to the xMax MSCs. The MSCs do the SIP compression and decompression to maintain 100% interoperability with third-party VoIP systems. This also has the benefit of making more bandwidth available for mobile data applications being carried alongside voice traffic.

Network Architecture

The primary consideration in the network architecture design of the xMax system is to achieve the goal of providing robust, scalable, and full-featured voice and data services to mobile subscribers at a fraction of the cost of traditional approaches.
As the diagram indicates, the network architecture includes the following elements:


Among the unique characteristics of the xMax network architecture is the way mobility is implemented. The system provides soft handoffs with make-before-break capability (timeslots are acquired before breaking a connection), which result in reliable roaming and a seamless user experience. This is demonstrated further in rhe ability of the system to perform inter-technology handoff (xMax to WiFi). With all handoff decisions made at the handset level via proactive channel scanning, there is no need for inter-base station communication, which helps drive seamless operation.

Technical Specification

Frequency of Operation
902-928 MHz
Number of Channels
16 (discreet non-overlapping)
Up to 7 miles (11 km)
Up to 2 Mbps per channel
PHY Layer
Proprietary OFDM
Up to 200 users per channel
Typical Link Budget
126 dB
Access Control Layer
Proprietary TDD-TDMA
End Device Interface
Ethernet or WiFi
Network Interface
IP Ethernet
PoE++ (Power over Ethernet)
Power Consumption
50 W upper limit
Device Mobility
Up to 100 mph (161 kph)
Tx/Rx Type
MIMO 2 Tx / 4 Rx
Receiver Type
MRC and Proprietary Subspace
Tx Output
Up to 23 dBm per Tx channel

Advantages of xMax

xMax delivers a private high-speed voice and data network that is only accessible by the people given access rights by their administrators. It has been DoD tested and provides interference mitigation and jam/hack resistance unmatched by any other wireless system available today—so communications are available whenever and wherever they are needed.

xMax creates an end-to-end IP transport layer that allows users of the system to connect using any commercially available smartphone, tablet, video camera, or unmanned sensor. In addition, they can use the devices they already have without the need for any special software or modification.

Easily Deployable
xMax can be set up as permanent fixed infrastructure that is dynamically scalable, self-organizing, self-healing, and is easily updated with software upgrades. xMax is also an expeditionary broadband network that can be set up and operational in minutes by anyone with minimal technical skill. It providing exceptional resiliency in unstable situations, making it an outstanding choice for emergency response, search and rescue, and event management.

xMax is available today and offers a very cost-effective, highly reliable alternative to commercial communications infrastructure. The system interconnects easily with LTE, GSM, and CDMA systems and will be compatible and interoperable with FirstNet when it is fielded.

References: www.xgtechnology.com

How does a hoverboard work ?

Let’s have a look at what’s inside a hoverboard ?
Main components of a hoverboard:

  • A steel frame with a central pivot
  • A logic board
  • Two gyroscopes
  • Two infrared sensors
  • Two electric motors (located inside the wheels)
  • Two tilt/speed sensors (located inside the wheels)
  • Charging port
  • Power switch
  • A battery pack
  • LED lights
  • Pressure pads
  • A plastic shell

Working of  the components


The wheels of the hoverboard house the electric motors themselves. They also contain a tilt and speed sensor. This detects the rpm (revolutions per minute) of the individual wheel, and sends it to the gyroscope and speed control boards, located inside the main body, right next to the wheels.


The gyroscope and speed control boards receive the rpms and tilt information from the sensor inside the wheels, and they, in turn, send it to the main logic board.

When you calibrate your board, the gyroscopes are basically “zeroed”, as in, you’re telling the gyroscopes, “this is flat, hence this is when the hoverboard’s tilt is at 0”.


The logic board is the “brain” of your hoverboard, and it’s where the processor computes in real time the status of the board, the speed at which you’re travelling, and the relative speed and tilt of the individual wheels (because, for example, when you turn the two wheels have opposing tilts, and hence opposing rpms and motion).

It also controls the power management of the board, and wether you are in “beginner mode” (thereby limiting the max speed of the board) or if the scooter is “locked”.


The battery pack is what keeps your board going. There are different packs out there, but the vast majority of them are 36V 4400mAH battery packs.


This is possibly the most clever part of the board: the pressure pads sit on two switches each.

When you lean forward, the front switch is pushed down, and a little plastic “wall” slides in-between an infrared LED and an infrared sensor.

As long as the sensor detects the light, the logic board will “tell” the motors to be still. But when the light is interrupted (because of the switch being pushed down by your weight), the board tells the motor to spin in a particular direction.

So, for example, if you’re turning left, your foot activates the front right switch, making the right wheel spin forward, while your left foot activates the back left switch, making the left wheel spin backwards. It’s very clever.


The tilt sensors in the wheels tell the gyroscopes how far forward you’re leaning. The gyroscopes relay this information to the logic board.

The more you’re leaning forward, the faster the logic board tells the motors to spin, to sort of “catch up” with your center of gravity. It’s this simple (yet very clever) mechanism which allows you to control the cruising speed of the scooter with your weight.

Friday, April 29, 2016

How our world with 5G will look like ?

The 5th Generation Mobile Networks, or 5th Generation Wireless Systems (5G), denotes the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. Since it was announced that a 5G technology is possible in the very near future, many have been wondering how our world with the technology will look like.
Experts in the wireless industry have agreed that 5G will be ready by the end of the decade. Nokia who has been a key player in the development of the technology, recently held a preview to demonstrate how the new technology could change our day-to-day activities.
According to Nokia, every industry will be affected by the 5G technology. The company says the network speeds are as high as 10Gbps. Nokia believes 5G will be the platform enabling growth in many industries, ranging from the Information Technology industry to the car, entertainment, agriculture and manufacturing industries.
Money.cnn.com highlights five major industries, which will be extremely affected by this new anticipated technology. The five industries have a very significant influence on our lives.

Faster Speeds

Nokia claims that it has tested a 5G connection with download speeds of 30 gigabits per second, in its laboratory. That is more than 1,000 times faster than our average 4G connection. Due to physical obstructions such as trees, buildings, distance from a cell tower, and traffic on network, getting the same results as what Nokia recorded in its laboratory, are perhaps dubious. But that notwithstanding, we are certainly going to receive something much better than what we currently have. According to the Director of Government Standards at AT&T-Brian Daly, the 5G will be fast: 10 to 100 times faster than the current 4G. This faster speed will also allow more customers to be connected at the same time, giving the network more capacity, and making connections more reliable for mobile customers.

Video Multi-Casting

Nokia strongly believes that with 5G Network, real-time events such as sports, concerts, etc will be greatly enhanced. The video quality from such events would be in stunning 4K, about four-times the resolution of HD. Viewers could even switch camera angle, getting an instant replay directly on their Smartphones, tablets, and other devices.

Self-Driving Cars

In the United States, testing for self-driving cars has begun. The test is being powered by wireless networks. But one major problem that has emerged from the test is the amount of latency, or lag, between the car’s sensor and the data center sending information to the car.

When self-driving cars become a reality, they will have to identify an obstacle and immediately communicate that information to the data center (and receive instructions from the cloud), with virtually no latency whatsoever. Otherwise, the car would crash. One of 5G’s biggest promises is the ultra-low latency, delivering uninterrupted communication flow to driverless cars. That could dramatically improve vehicle safety and reduce congestion.

Networked Robots

Network robots will be very useful in the health and manufacturing sectors. For example, robotic surgical tools can be useful machines for doctors. The robot needs to react in real-time, just as the doctor issues a command. The same goes for robots that perform complex manufacturing commands, which need to communicate instantly with other robots on the assembly line.  5G will make all these efficient. Nokia predicts that 5G’s low latency would help tremendously, allowing networked robots to perform more complicated tasks in the future as the technology is developed.

Virtual Reality

If you put on a virtual reality mask, Nokia believes 5G will allow you to “enter” a virtual world with other people. You can interact with them, play video games with them, and even virtually high-five them. Nokia says virtual reality users will be able to collaborate as if they are in the same physical location. It could usher in a new era of video games and remote collaboration.

Chief technology officer at Nokia- Marcus Weldon sums up how our world with 5G will look like: “5G will give birth to the next phase of human possibilities, bringing about the automation of everything. This automation, driven by a smart, invisible network, will create new businesses, give rise to new services and, ultimately, free up more time for people.”

Download Full Report about 5G Mobile Networks (PDF file)

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

For The First Time Ever, NASA Saw Something Come OUT Of A Black Hole

Two telescopes observed something miraculous when a supermassive black hole's corona 'launched' from its center, inspiring a pulse of X-ray energy to spew out.

Pretty much everyone knows that black holes suck things in, not spew them out. But, for the first time ever, the notable space organization NASA captured a supermassive black hole releasing something into space.
According to Viral Thread, two of NASA’s space telescopes, including the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), observed Markarian 335’s corona ‘launching’ away from its center. Then, a massive pulse of X-ray energy spewed out.
Since the miraculous observation, scientists have been trying to figure out what exactly happened. 

According to Dan Wilkins of Saint Mary’s University,
“This is the first time we have been able to link the launching of the corona to a flare. This will help us understand how supermassive black holes power some of the brightest objects in the universe.”

Credit: NASA

Fiona Harrison, NuSTAR’s principal investigator, noted that the nature of the energetic source is “mysterious.” However, she also added that the ability to actually record the event should provide some clues about the black hole’s size and structure, along with some fresh intel on how black holes function.
There should be plenty of time to research this supermassive black hole – without fear of being affected by any flares, as it is still 324 million light-years away.
What are your thoughts? Please comment below and share this news!

Monday, April 25, 2016

Top 10 Facts about Area 51

The U.S. military installation, Area 51 located about 100 miles north of Las Vegas, is one of the most known secret and interesting places on the planet. It is commonly known for UFO conspiracy theories and US army’s secret projects. This video tells some of the surprising facts about one of the best-known secret places on earth:

Source: anonhq.com

5 Best Ways You can Recover Deleted Files from your PC

While it is easy to restore your data from your computer’s Recycle Bin, once you have deleted it from its location, it is next to impossible to recover files once the trash is emptied, or the Shift+Del keys are pressed. You may use the Restore Previous Version option to bring back your erased files, but that option can affect your other data. So, if you want to fetch your permanently deleted files – without making any changes to your system and without testing your technical acumen– there is hope and free tools to help you pull through:

To recover data from corrupted, damaged, and reformatted drives; restore files erased by bugs, crashes and viruses; as well as “undelete” files from USB flash drives, memory cards, and MP3 players, you can choose Recuva. This Windows recovery tool was developed by Piriform and has an advanced deep scan mode, which scours your drives to find any traces of files you have deleted by mistake.

The free file recovery software allows you to recover files regardless of their type – pictures, songs, movies and documents – up to a month after they were deleted by using the Shift+Del keys bypassing. According to the developers, “Pandora Recovery scans your hard drive and builds an index of existing and deleted files on any logical drive of your computer with supported file format; once the scanning is complete you have full control over which files to recover and what destination to recover them to.”

You can copy the deleted files you want to recover onto another partition, or disk, using this free and open source data recovery software tool. TestDisk queries the BIOS, or the operating system, to find the data storage devices and their characteristics to recover deleted partition, rebuild partition table, and rewrite the Master boot record.

This portable recovery program can be used in all versions of Windows and Windows file systems to resurrect files, folders, and clusters. Its scan and recovery speeds make the job easier, and, since it’s portable, you don’t have to install it. You can use it on your PC without writing to the hard drive.

This free data recovery software recovers lost files that are due to accidental deleting, formatting, software crash, hard drive damage, virus attack, partition loss or any other reason. The recovery can take place from your computer’s hard drive, external hard drives, USB drives, memory cards, digital cameras, mobile phones, music players and other storage media. EaseUS has two scanning modes: quick scan that finds deleted files; and deep scan that finds formatted, inaccessible or lost files.