Saturday, October 18, 2014

Electronic Paper (e-paper) PPT

Electronic paper, e-paper and electronic ink are display technologies that mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional backlit flat panel displays that emit light, electronic paper displays reflect light like paper. This may make them more comfortable to read, and provide a wider viewing angle than most light-emitting displays. The contrast ratio in electronic displays available as of 2008 approaches newspaper, and newly developed displays are slightly better. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing to fade.
Many electronic paper technologies hold static text and images indefinitely without electricity. Flexible electronic paper uses plastic substrates and plastic electronics for the display backplane. There is ongoing competition among manufacturers to provide full-color ability.
Applications of electronic visual displays include electronic pricing labels in retail shops, and digital signage, time tables at bus stations, electronic billboards, mobile phone displays, and e-readers able to display digital versions of books and e-paper magazines.

e-Paper Technologies 

  • Gyricon
  • Electrophoretic display
  • Electrowetting
  • Electrofluidic display
  • Interferometric modulator (Mirasol)

e-Paper Advantages and Disadvantages 

Advantages of e-paper

  • Paper-like Readability
  • They  are persistent without power, drawing current only when they change, which means low power consumption therefore  batteries can be smaller and last longer.
  • An electronic ink display module is thinner, lighter weight, and more robust than conventional LCD's.
  • Electronic Paper is highly flexible and it is able to be twisted or bended into different curvatures. The Electronic Paper can be applied to different shapes of products, without being limited to being bonded to flat display panels.
  • They are completely reflective requiring no backlight.
  • They are inherently bi-stable for extended periods of time.

Disadvantages of e-paper

  • Very low switching speed
  • Electrochemical complexity 
  • Electronic paper technologies have a very low refresh rate compared to other low-power display technologies, such as LCD.
  • A shadow of an image may be visible after refreshing parts of the screen. Such shadows are termed "ghost images", and the effect is termed "ghosting“.


Blogger Tricks

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Artificial Photosynthesis PPT

Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The term is commonly used to refer to any scheme for capturing and storing the energy from sunlight in the chemical bonds of a fuel (a solar fuel). Photocatalytic water splitting converts water into Hydrogen Ions and oxygen, and is a main research area in artificial photosynthesis. Light-driven carbon dioxide reduction is another studied process, replicating natural carbon fixation.

Click here to Download PPT 

Thursday, October 9, 2014

Biosensors PPT

Definition of Sensor

“... device, that responds to a physical (or chemical) stimulus (heat, light, sound, pressure, motion, magnetism...) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control).”
                                                                                                   Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary

Biochemical Sensor

“... A device incorporating a biochemical sensing element either intimately connected to or integrated within a transducer”.
Also, A Self-contained integrated device that is capable of providing specific qualitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element which is in direct-spatial contact with a transduction element. (IUPAC,1998)
                                                     1)Biosensor ≠ Bioanalytical System

2)An Enzyme Electrode is a Biosensor

Current Definition

A sensor that integrates a biological element with a physiochemical transducer to produce an electronic signal proportional to a single analyte which is then conveyed to a detector.

Applications of Biosensors

Advantages of Biosensors

  • Highly Specific.
  • Independent of Factors like stirring, pH, etc.
  • Linear response, Tiny & Biocompatible.
  • Easy to Use, Durable.
  • Require only Small Sample Volume.
  • Rapid, Accurate, Stable & Sterilizable.

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

The heaviest object moved by road freight

The heaviest object moved by road freight is an evaporator unit weighing 4,891 Tonnes (5,391.4 Tons), which was achieved by Almajdouie Logistics Company (Saudi Arabia), at Ras Al Khair, Saudi Arabia, on 22 January 2012.
The evaporator weighed 4,891,000 kg (10,782,809.24 lb's) and measured 124 m (406.82 ft) long x 34 m (111.55 ft) wide x 12 m (39.37 ft) high. This is roughly the size of a football field and the weight of around 3,500 passenger cars! It is one of eight such evaporator units moved as part of a project constructing a desalination plant.

Source :

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

How does a Transformer work ? : Animation

Transformer, a device that transfers electric energy from one circuit to another, usually with a change in voltage. Transformers work only with a varying electric current, such as alternating current (AC). Transformers are important in the distribution of electric power.
This video gives a detailed animated illustration on the working of electricTransformers. Here the basic working principle and construction of transformer, step-up transformer, step-down transformer, transformer winding and core construction are well illustrated.
Source: Learn Engineering (Youtube)

Monday, September 29, 2014

How to transfer orkut photos to google+

The day has finally came 30 September,2014.After this day you can't login to once your favorite and first social networking site. Orkut will be gone forever after 30 September .However, if you are still an active user or if you have some data there that you'd like to download, there are easy ways to do so. Before you begin, know that you can't download information from other people's accounts. Google only lets you download data from your own Orkut account. This also means you won't be able to download the scraps or testimonials you sent to other people. You can only download the scraps and testimonials you've received and their comments.

Saving the pictures from Orkut 

Saving the pictures from Orkut is particularly simple since you can easily transfer them to a Google+ account. This method will stop working after September 30, 2014. Exporting to Google+ is easy - just follow these steps:

1) Go to Google+ and log in to your account.

3) Click to select each album you want to export or choose "Select all".

4) Click "Import selected". This will transfer your photos to Google+. All these photos will only be visible to you. You'll have to change their privacy settings to make them visible to others.

How to Download Your Orkut Scraps, Testimonials, and Photos ?

If you want to save the pictures and scraps to your computer instead, you can use Google Takeout. This service lets you download all your Orkut account data in a zip file. The file will contain HTML files and photos. Google says you can download your profile, scraps received, testimonials received, activities and your photos from Orkut. You will be able to download your Orkut data using Google Takeout until September 2016. This is how to download your Orkut data:

1) Head to Google Takeout and sign in if you haven't already done so.

2) Click "Choose services" and then select Orkut.

3) Click "Create archive" and wait till the archive is ready. If you like, you can leave the page, and receive an email when the archive is ready.

4) Once the archive is ready, click Download. Google says there's no limit on how many times you can download your Orkut information.

Friday, September 12, 2014

Check if your Gmail account is hacked

Around 5 million Google accounts have been compromised by Russian hackers.The account details have been posted on a Russian Bitcoin forum. It is still not clear how the hackers obtained the vast collection of usernames and passwords,while Google denies any unauthorized access on its servers.In fact,there is no telling yet whether the list published is even authenticated,says Google.

How to check whether your Google account is hacked ?

To check if your Google account, which is the gateway to your Gmail, Plus, Drive, Hangout, YouTube accounts as well, has been compromised,there is a secure tool where you can see if your account has been exposed.

Simply type your gmail ID in the given box and click check.

If you don't like to specify your full email address for any reason, you can replace up to 3 characters with asterisk sign (e.g., for enter myac***

What next ?

In case your password has been hacked, then immediately change it by answering the security questions that you set while signing up. Also, enable two-step verification for your account in Settings.
Even if your account has not been compromised, it is advisable to enable two-step verification.

It is always recommended to check your security settings.