Thursday, August 28, 2014

Steering Fundamentals PPT

A Steering Wheel is used by driver to rotate steering shaft that passes through steering column.Steering Linkage connects steering gearbox to steering knuckles and wheels.

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Blogger Tricks

Fuel Supply System PPT

The purpose of any fuel supply system is to deliver fuel to the engine in a form in which it can mix with air to form a combustible mixture.The fuel must be finely atomized to mix with the air. This is why injection systems deliver the fuel under pressure.

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Monday, August 25, 2014

Intex Cloud FX Firefox OS Smartphone

Intex Cloud FX

Intex on Monday has launched the first Firefox OS smartphone in India, the Cloud FX, priced at Rs. 1,999. The company had in June announced it would launch the smartphone in August under Rs. 2,000. The smartphone will be  available via exclusive retail partner Snapdeal

Intex Cloud FX Firefox Smartphone Unboxing And Hands On Review

Full Intex Cloud FX specifications

Release date
August 2014
Form factor
Dimensions (mm)
115.90 x 62.00 x 11.80
Weight (g)
Battery capacity (mAh)
Removable battery
SAR value
Screen size (inches)
Touchscreen type
320x480 pixels
Internal storage
Expandable storage
Expandable storage type
Expandable storage up to (GB)
Rear camera
Front camera
Operating System
Firefox OS 
Java support
Browser supports Flash
Wi-Fi standards supported
Wi-Fi Direct
Charging via Micro-USB
Proprietary charging connector
Proprietary data connector
Number of SIMs


Compass/ Magnetometer
Proximity sensor
Ambient light sensor
Temperature sensor

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Holographic Data Storage PPT

Holographic storage is a mass storage technology that uses three-dimensional holographic images to enable more information to be stored in a much smaller space.  The technology uses holograms which are created when a light from a single laser beam is split into two beams; the signal beam (which carries the data) and the reference beam. In holographic storage, at the point where the reference beam and the data carrying signal beam intersect, the hologram is recorded in the light sensitive storage medium.

Advantages of Holographic Data Storage

  • Storage Capacity: Magnetic and traditional optical data storage use points of a particular recording surface to store information linearly. On the other hand, holographic storage stores data in three dimensions on the recording medium. This essentially allows a larger amount of information to be stored on a smaller space.
  • Storage Size: As more data can be stored on a smaller area holographic memory promises to dramatically reduce the amount of space needed to store vast amounts of data. This has significant consequences for both industry-grade and consumer mass-storage devices.
  • Longevity: Holographic memory allows a user to write something to disc and have it be stable for up to 50 years. Magnetic storage degrades over time, and mechanical issues can lead to the failure of the disk itself. Magnetic storage requires contact between a reader and the recording surface which usually results in breakdown in about five years. On the other hand, holographic storage requires no points of direct contact, but instead uses lasers.
  • Faster Data Retrieval: Holographic data storage also allows for faster data retrieval as memory is stored multi-dimensionally rather than linearly (this allows multiple points to be accessed simultaneously). For this reason holographic data storage allows transfer speeds of up to 1 GB per second. Holographic systems are able to do this as they retrieve whole pages of data, roughly 60,000 bits of data, with a single pulse of light whereas more traditional storage mediums such as DVDs can only transfer one bit of data per pulse.
  • Extremely useful for medical archiving. (magnetic storage devices typically have storage life of 5 years).
  • Extremely optimum for small portable devices because of low power consumption (10GB/Watt) and high data storage capacity.

Disadvantages of Holographic Data Storage

  • Current data storage options on the market such as ‘blu ray’ disks can compete with projected storage capacities of  holographic data storage. This make companies less eager to invest in holographic data storage if current technologies can compete.
  • There are already emerging storage devices such as 3D optical data storage, similar to to holography but can store more data, specifically up to petabytes ( 1000 TB ) of data.

Sincere thanks to Marcine Lohman
Holographic Data Storage Preview

3D Optical Data Storage PPT

3D optical data storage is an experimental storage technology is predicted to offer exponentially more storage capacity than today’s data storage technologies. Researchers have developed working 3D optical data storage devices, but the technology is not yet commercially available due to design issues that need to be addressed.

How 3D Optical Data Storage Works ?

The easiest way to explain 3D optical data storage is to compare it to current DVD technology. DVD data storage operates in a 2D environment. Data is stored across the top of these disks and then that data is read by a laser. Multi-layer DVDs can even store data in different layers throughout the depth of the disc. The laser can then be focused on those layers to read that information.The problem with multi-layer DVDs is that they are limited to about 10 layers. When a laser is focused on one of those “deeper” layers, it has to travel through all the layers on top of that one. This causes interference and limits the number of layers that can be stored on a traditional DVD.3D optical data storage uses technology that allows more than 100 layers to be written on a disc that looks like a traditional DVD. This creates an exponentially larger data capacity in the same amount of space. There are estimates that 3D optical data discs will be able to store 5 terabytes of data or more.
Note – this is a very basic explanation of 3D optical data storage. If you’d like to see the gritty details, check out this Wikipedia page about 3D optical data storage.

Future of 3D Optical Data Storage

The biggest hurdle for 3D optical data storage right now is making it commercially viable for the public. Although working prototypes have been developed, 3D optical data storage has a long ways to go before it becomes a useful data storage format. Multiple companies are working on 3D optical data storage, but it will still be a while before we see something hit the consumer market.

According to Wikipedia, there are three major technical difficulties that need to be overcome:
  • The potential for data to be damaged by lasers that read the data
  • The possibility of chemical reactions that damage data over extended periods of time
  • Media that is easily damaged by lasers
We believe that it is inevitable for data storage to evolve into 3D technology of some sort. The next step up may not be 3D optical storage in particular, but it will be something similar. Technology firms are also working on similar technology called “Holographic Data Storage.” It’s only a matter of time before something new hits the market.

Advantages and disadvantages of 3D optical storage

  • Durability. With proper care, optical media can last a long time, depending on what kind of optical media you choose. 
  • Great for archiving. Several forms of optical media are write-once read-many, which means that when data is written to them, they cannot be reused. This is excellent for archiving because data is preserved permanently with no possibility of being overwritten. 
  • Transportability. Optical media are widely used on other platforms, including the PC. For example, data written on a DVD-RAM can be read on a PC or any other system with an optical device and the same file system. 
  • Random access. Optical media provide the capability to pinpoint a particular piece of data stored on it, independent of the other data on the volume or the order in which that data was stored on the volume
  • Reusable. The write-once read-many (WORM) characteristic of some optical media makes it excellent for archiving, but it also prevents you from being able to use that media again. 
  • Writing time. The server uses software compression to write compressed data to your optical media. This process takes considerable processing unit resources and may increase the time needed to write and restore that data.
Data storage technology is a constantly evolving field of study. From the first days of humans drawing on cave walls to today’s digital storage technology, people have yearned to store their technology in increasingly efficient manners. One day even 3D optical data storage will be remembered as a thing of the past.

Monday, August 18, 2014

Six-Stroke Engine PPT

A six stroke engine describes a number of different approaches in the internal combustion engine to capture the waste heat from the four stroke Otto cycle and use it to power an additional power and exhaust stroke of the piston. Designs either use steam or air as the working fluid for the additional power stroke. As well as extracting power, the additional stroke cools the engine and removes the need for a cooling system making the engine lighter and giving 40% increased efficiency over the Otto Cycle. The pistons in a six stroke engine go up and down six times for each injection of fuel.The six stroke engine has 2 power strokes, one fuel, one steam or air. The currently notable six stroke engine designs include Crower's six stroke engine, the Bajulaz engine and the Six-stroke engine 
The Beare Head engine is called a six stroke by its designer but stands apart from the others. It uses a second opposed piston in each cylinder which moves at half the cyclical rate of the main piston, thus giving six piston movements per cycle. It does not use any additional working fluid. "Six-stroke engine (Trivandrum)"In the six-stroke engine developed by the students of College of Engineering, Trivandrum, India, the first four strokes are the same as a four stroke internal combustion engine. After the exhaust stroke, instead of air/fuel mixture (as in case of petrol engines), fresh air is sucked into the cylinder from the air filter, and is removed during the sixth stroke. The valve overlaps have been removed and the additional two strokes have been provided for better scavenging, using air injection. The engine shows 40% reduction in fuel consumption and dramatic reduction in pollution. Its specific power is not less than that of a four-stroke petrol engine. The engine can run on a variety of fuels, ranging from petrol and diesel to LPG. An altered engine shows a 65% reduction in CO pollution when compared with the four stroke engine from which it was developed.

Advantages of Six-Stroke Engine

1) Reduction in fuel consumption by at least 40%:
2) Two expansions (work) in six strokes
3) Dramatic reduction in pollution:
4) Liquefied Petroleum Gas
5) Cost comparable to those of a four-stroke engine

Billions of explosion engines are running worldwide at this time, and this era is not about to end. It is commercially obvious that the big market if for automobile, heavy goods, construction-site and farm vehicles. This is a priority for the six-stroke engine.Drastically reducing fuel consumption and pollution without radically affecting performances would allow the current concept of the automobile to be reassessed.
There is, at this day, no wonder solution for the replacement of the internal combustion engine. Only improvements of the current technology can help it progress within reasonable time and financial limits. The six-stroke engine fits perfectly into this view. It’s adoption by the automobile industry would have a tremendous impact on the environment and world economy, assuming up to 40% reduction in fuel consumption and 60% to 90% in polluting emissions, depending on the type of fuel being used. Fuel consumption for mid-sized cars should be within 4 and 5 liters per 100km. and 3 to 4 liters for the small-sized cars. Automobiles equipped with the six-stroke engine could appear in the market within 3 to 5 years

Applications of Six-Stroke Engine

1) Motorboats might offer a big outlet for this type of engine. Their characteristics are perfectly suited to its use. Furthermore, the use of fuels other than gasoline would greatly reduce the risks of explosion.
2) Using non-fossil fuels of vegetable origin, natural gases and others, in simple, robust engine, operating with a minimum of adjustments and non-pollutant.
3) Many more applications may also be envisaged.

Sunday, August 17, 2014

SHARC Processors:Tiger SHARC PPT

SHARC Processors

Analog Devices' 32-Bit Floating-Point SHARC® Processors are based on a Super Harvard architecture that balances exceptional core and memory performance with outstanding I/O throughput capabilities. This "Super" Harvard architecture extends the original concepts of separate program and data memory busses by adding an I/O processor with its associated dedicated busses. In addition to satisfying the demands of the most computationally intensive, real-time signal-processing applications, SHARC processors integrate large memory arrays and application-specific peripherals designed to simplify product development and reduce time to market.

The SHARC processor portfolio currently consists of four generations of products providing code-compatible solutions ranging from entry-level products priced at less than $10 to the highest performance products offering fixed- and floating-point computational power to 450 MHz/2700 MFLOPs. Irrespective of the specific product choice, all SHARC processors provide a common set of features and functionality useable across many signal processing markets and applications. This baseline functionality enables the SHARC user to leverage legacy code and design experience while transitioning to higher-performance, more highly integrated SHARC products.


32/40-Bit IEEE Floating-Point Math
32-Bit Fixed-Point Multipliers with 64-Bit Product & 80-Bit Accumulation
No Arithmetic Pipeline; All Computations Are Single-Cycle
Circular Buffer Addressing Supported in Hardware
32 Address Pointers Support 32 Circular Buffers
Six Nested Levels of Zero-Overhead Looping in Hardware
Rich, Algebraic Assembly Language Syntax
Instruction Set Supports Conditional Arithmetic, Bit Manipulation, Divide & Square Root, Bit Field Deposit and Extract
DMA Allows Zero-Overhead Background Transfers at Full Clock Rate Without Processor Intervention
First Generation SHARC products offer performance to 66 MHz/ 198 MFLOPs and form the cornerstone of the SHARC processor family. Their easy-to-use Instruction Set Architecture that supports both 32-bit fixed-point and 32/40-bit floating data formats combined with large memory arrays and sophisticated communications ports make them suitable for a wide array of parallel processing applications including consumer audio, medical imaging, military, industrial, and instrumentation.
Second Generation SHARC products double the level of signal processing performance (100MHz / 600MFLOPs) offered by utilizing a Single-Instruction, Multiple-Data (SIMD) architecture. This hardware extension to first generation SHARC processors doubles the number of computational resources available to the system programmer. Second generation products contain dual multipliers, ALUs, shifters, and data register files - significantly increasing overall system performance in a variety of applications. This capability is especially relevant in consumer, automotive, and professional audio where the algorithms related to stereo channel processing can effectively utilize the SIMD architecture.

Third Generation SHARC products employ an enhanced SIMD architecture that extends CPU performance to 450 MHz/2700 MFLOPs. These products also integrate a variety of ROM memory configurations and audio-centric peripherals design to decrease time to market and reduce the overall bill of materials costs. This increased level of performance and peripheral integration allow third generation SHARC processors to be considered as single-chip solutions for a variety of audio markets.

The fourth generation of SHARC® Processors, now includes the ADSP-21486, ADSP-21487, ADSP-21488, ADSP-21489 and offers increased performance, hardware-based filter accelerators, audio and application-focused peripherals, and new memory configurations capable of supporting the latest surround-sound decoder algorithms. All devices are pin-compatible with each other and completely code-compatible with all prior SHARC Processors. These newest members of the fourth generation SHARC Processor family are based on a single-instruction, multiple-data (SIMD) core, which supports both 32-bit fixed-point and 32-/40-bit floating-point arithmetic formats making them particularly suitable for high-performance audio applications

Fourth-generation SHARC Processors also integrate application-specific peripherals designed to simplify hardware design, minimize design risks, and ultimately reduce time to market. Grouped together, and broadly named the Digital Applications Interface (DAI), these functional blocks may be connected to each other or to external pins via the software-programmable Signal Routing Unit (SRU). The SRU is an innovative architectural feature that enables complete and flexible routing amongst DAI blocks. Peripherals connected through the SRU include but are not limited to serial ports, IDP, S/PDIF Tx/Rx, and an 8-Channel asynchronous sample rate converter block. The fourth generation SHARC allows data from the serial ports to be directly transferred to external memory by the DMA controller. Other peripherals such as SPI,UART and Two-Wire Interface are routed through a Digital Peripheral Interface (DPI).


The TigerSHARC DSP is an ultra high-performance static superscalar architecture that is optimized for tele-communications infrastructure and other computationally demanding applications. This unique architecture combines elements of RISC, VLIW, and standard DSP processors to provide native support for 8, 16, and 32-bit fixed, as well as floating-point data types on a single chip.

Large on-chip memory, extremely high internal and external bandwidths and dual compute blocks provide the necessary capabilities to handle a vast array of computationally demanding, large signal processing tasks.
Strictly speaking, the term "DSP" applies to any microprocessor that operates on digitally represented signals. most DSP processors include specialized on-chip peripherals or I/O interfaces that allow the processor to efficiently interface with other system components, such as analog-to-digital converters and host processors.

The TigerSHARC DSP provides leading edge system performance while keeping the highest possible flexibility in software and hardware development - flexibility without compromise. This concept will allow wireless infrastructure manufacturers to continue adapting to the evolving 3G standards while deploying a highly optimized and effective Node B solution that will realize significant overall cost savings.For general purpose multiprocessing applications, TigerSHARC DSP's balanced architecture optimizes system, cost, power and density. A single TigerSHARC DSP, with its large on-chip memory, zero overhead DMA engine, large I/O throughput, and integrated multiprocessing support, has the necessary integration to be a complete node of a multiprocessing system. This enables a multiprocessor network exclusively made up of TigerSHARCS without any expensive and power consuming external memories or logic

The ADSP-TS101S, the latest member of the TigerSHARC DSP family can execute 2.0 billion MACs per second while achieving the world's highest floating-point DSP performance. The TigerSHARC DSP's parallelism capabilities allow for up to four 32-bit instructions per cycle while an enhanced communication instruction set reduces some of the mountainous signal processing functions associated with wireless down to a manageable level. The ADSP-TS101S also provides an unmatched level of both internal and external bandwidth that enable high computation rates and high data rate processing.