Monday, July 28, 2014

3D ICs Seminar Report

The unprecedented   growth of   the computer and the Information technology industry is demanding Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits with increasing functionality and performance at minimum cost and power dissipation. VLSI circuits are being aggressively scaled to meet this Demand, which in turn has some serious problems for the semiconductor industry. 

Additionally heterogeneous integration of different technologies in one single chip (SoC) is becoming increasingly desirable, for which planar (2-D) ICs may not be suitable. 3D ICs are an attractive chip architecture that can alleviate the interconnect related problems such as delay and power dissipation and can also facilitate integration of heterogeneous technologies in one chip (SoC).  The multi-layer chip industry opens up a whole new world of design. With the Introduction of 3-D ICs, the world of chips may never look the same again.

CONTENTS

1.  Introduction                                     
2.  Motivation for 3D ICs                   
3.  Scope of this study
4.  Area and performance estimation of 3D ICs
5.  Challenges for 3D Integration 
6.  Overview of 3D IC technology 
7.  Present scenario of the 3D IC industry               
8.  Advantages of 3D memory
9.  Applications of 3D ICs
10.  Future of 3D IC industry
11.  Conclusion
12.  Reference

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Monday, July 21, 2014

History of Wearable Technology

The concept of wearable computers has been around for over half a century. Although the first wearable computer was invented to predict winning roulette numbers, wearable computers have the ability to benefit individuals and society. Wearable computers are by definition worn by the user, but are intended to interact with the wearer without punching keys or other manipulation. A wearable is always on and always working. It may have added features that interact with the environment such as GPS navigation and wireless communication.
Lets have a look in the chronology of the wearable tech.
Open the infographics and zoom to read.
sources: Mashable Infographics



Thursday, May 29, 2014

Stirling engine PPT

Stirling engines work by expanding and contracting gas in a piston, just like other kinds of engines such as petrol, diesel and steam engines. The big difference is that the gas Stirling engines use is completely self-contained or ‘closed’ so does not need to come from some sort of fuel source (like igniting petrol, or steam from a boiler). All you need to get a Stirling engine to go is a temperature difference of some sort that expands and contracts the enclosed gas.

The easiest way to produce a high temperature difference is to burn things like waste material, oil, gas, hydrogen, etc. Burning a wide variety of stuff may be very handy, but tends not particularly environmentally friendly. Since only a temperature difference is required, you could use solar power or other naturally occurring heat sources to run a Stirling engine.

Stirling engines can be very energy efficient (more than 50% in some cases which is better than most high efficiency gas or steam turbines and way better than internal combustion engines, which struggle to reach 25%), so even the ones designed to burn fuel produce less pollution than other types of engine.

The Stirling engine is noted for its high efficiency compared to steam engines,quiet operation, and the ease with which it can use almost any heat source. This compatibility with alternative and renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as peak oil and climate change. This engine is currently exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power (CHP) units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Stirling Engine 

Advantages
  • Various heat sources (solar, geothermal, nuclear energy, waste heat, biological)
  • Environmental friendly 
  • Heat is external and the burning of a fuel-air mixture can be more accurately controlled.
  • Operates at relatively low pressure and thus  are much safer than typical steam turbines
  • Less manpower needed to operate any type of commercial Stirling engine. 
Disadvantages 
  • The price : its cost is probably the most important problem, it is not yet competitive with other means well established. 
  • The ignorance of this type of engine by the general public. Only a few fans know it exists. It is therefore necessary to promote it. 
  • The variety of models prevents standardization and, consequently, lower prices.
  • Sealing problems
  • Heat transfers with a gas are delicate and often require bulky apparatuses.
  • The lack of flexibility.

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Google silently made the tiniest change to its Corporate Logo

Google silently made the tiniest change to its Corporate Logo. See the difference


Why make the change? 

Because it was off by a pixel, and now it looks better. To some people's eyes, anyway.

Saturday, May 24, 2014

Solar Roadways

Solar Roadways is a modular paving system of solar panels that can withstand the heaviest of trucks (250,000 pounds). These Solar Road Panels can be installed on roads, parking lots, driveways, sidewalks, bike paths, playgrounds... literally any surface under the sun. They pay for themselves primarily through the generation of electricity, which can power homes and businesses connected via driveways and parking lots. A nationwide system could produce more clean renewable energy than a country uses as a whole (http://solarroadways.com/numbers.shtml).

They have many other features as well, including: heating elements to stay snow/ice free, LEDs to make road lines and signage, and attached Cable Corridor to store and treat stormwater and provide a "home" for power and data cables. EVs will be able to charge with energy from the sun (instead of fossil fuels) from parking lots and driveways and after a roadway system is in place, mutual induction technology will allow for charging while driving. Watch the awesome informative video.

Solar FREAKIN' Roadways!!

Imagine a world where the roads are paved in solar freakin' panels. You may support their Indiegogo campaign here:  http://igg.me/at/solarroadways/x

Sources:Indiegogo

Sunday, May 18, 2014

World's fastest cars,2014

The Venom GT set a new world speed record for two-seat sports cars by reaching a top speed of 270.49 mph, by racing the high-performance car down the 3.2-mile Kennedy Space Center Space Shuttle landing runway in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
The blistering speed is the fastest recorded time for a two-seat sports car, but because the Venom GT uses a modified chassis and other components from the Lotus Exige — and since only 11 have been produced — the Guinness Book of Records has not recognized the Venom as “the fastest production car.”
“The Venom GT attained a maximum speed of 270.49 mph as measured by our VBOX 3i GPS system,” said Racelogic engineer Joe Lachovsky, according to Hennessy’s release.
The GPS data showed the Venom GT took just 10.1 seconds to accelerate from 260 to 270 mph. The historic run took 2.4 miles to achieve, allowing the Venom just eight-tenths of a mile to stop.
“Thankfully, its Brembo carbon-ceramic brakes were able to haul the car down from 270 mph well before the end of the runway’s 1,000-foot threshold,” the Hennessey team said.
With a top speed of 462 mph, Speed Demon is the world's fastest piston car.This streamliner vehicle has broken several class records at the Bonneville Salt Flats races, and currently holds the wheel-driven land speed record at 439 mph. It is placed in the all-time top echelon of Bonneville cars. However, car owners Ron Main and George Poteet have dreams of taking Speed Demon to speeds over 500 mph. 

Video: 0 to 431 mph in 77 Seconds

Saturday, May 17, 2014

Smart Grid

What is Smart Grid ?

The Smart Grid is a combination of hardware, management and reporting software, built atop an intelligent communications infrastructure. In the world of the Smart Grid, consumers and utility companies alike have tools to manage, monitor and respond to energy issues. The flow of electricity from utility to consumer becomes a two-way conversation, saving consumers money, energy, delivering more transparency in terms of end-user use, and reducing carbon emissions.
Modernization of the electricity delivery system so that it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements – from the central and distributed generator through the high-voltage network and distribution system, to industrial users and building automation systems, to energy storage installations and to end-use consumers and their thermostats, electric vehicles, appliances and other household devices.The Smart Grid in large, sits at the intersection of Energy, IT and Telecommunication Technologies. 

 "Smart Grid"

There are many smart grid definitions, some functional, some technological, and some benefits-oriented. The term smart grid to describe an electric grid, has been in use since at least October 1997, when the article Grids get smart protection and control, by Khoi Vu, Miroslav M. Begovic, and Damir Novosel, was published in the journal "IEEE Computer Applications in Power".
A common element to most definitions is the application of digital processing and communications to the power grid, making data flow and information management central to the smart grid. Various capabilities result from the deeply integrated use of digital technology with power grids, and integration of the new grid information flows into utility processes and systems is one of the key issues in the design of smart grids. Electric utilities now find themselves making three classes of transformations: improvement of infrastructure, called the strong grid in China; addition of the digital layer, which is the essence of the smart grid; and business process transformation, necessary to capitalize on the investments in smart technology. Much of the modernization work that has been going on in electric grid modernization, especially substation and distribution automation, is now included in the general concept of the smart grid, but additional capabilities are evolving as well.
Source: wikipedia

Advantages of Smart Grid

  • Economic Development : The manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of the smart grid and its components will create new jobs within the state. o Innovation: Smart grid innovation will enable the growth of business while rewarding customers with valuable new products.
  • Lower Costs: Costs rise over time and energy is no exception, but the smart grid should provide less costly energy than otherwise would be possible. As such, it will save customers money which can be invested or consumed as they choose. 
  • Higher Customer Satisfaction: The combination of lower costs, improved reliability and better customer control will raise satisfaction among all types of customers.
  • Improved Reliability: Smart grid will reduce and shorten outages and improve the quality of power.
  • Customer Energy/Cost Savings: As pricing becomes more transparent and is aligned with the underlying economics of generation and distribution, customers’ decisions to save money will benefit society as well.

Disadvantages of Smart Grid

  • Biggest concern: Privacy and Security
  • Some types of meters can be hacked
  • Hackers
    • May gain control of thousands, even millions, of meters
    • Increase or decrease the demand for power
  • Not simply a single component 
  • Various technology components: - software, the power generators, system integrators, etc.
  • Expensive in terms of installation