Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Which IT Career is Right for You ?

In the very broad field of IT, there are a lot of different careers to choose from. Aside from involving computers, the actual day-to-day workflow and salary of these jobs can vary wildly. On the surface, you might think that IT is IT, but that notion couldn’t be further from the truth.
So, what exactly are the differences between these different jobs, and how are you to learn which one if right for you? Simple! Just check out the infographic below for a quick breakdown of each career and what exactly you should expect from each one.
Computer Jobs
Source: ComputerScienceZone.org

Monday, April 10, 2017

Contrast Between WiFi and LiFi

Have you ever thought of a world where LED bulbs communicate data? Well, this could be a reality in the near future. LiFi, a fresh, new wireless visible light communication technology, employs LED bulbs for data sharing. This networking wonder, invented by Harold Haas, can transfer data up to 100 times faster than that of WiFi implementations. Compared to WiFi, that uses radio frequency waves, LiFi does not exhibit any electromagnetic interference.

LiFi can be used in denser medium like sea water. It can be accessed in places where WiFi is normally un-operational like airplanes, submarines and hospitals. As light cannot penetrate walls, LiFi can be used by intelligence agencies as it offers deeply secure connectivity. Hence, highly confidential data can be easily transferred without the fear of hacking. LiFi will outrun WiFi systems in the coming years. The following infographic from cabotsolutions.com. outlines the distinction between WiFi and LiFi.
Contrast Between WiFi and LiFi #Infographic
Infographic by: www.cabotsolutions.com

The Best Torrent Websites Online and Ready to Use

The world of Torrent over the last few years has suffered greatly, with many of the biggest torrent sites taken down. However, the situation has changed, with many of them returning online, giving people the chance to download their favourite shows again. All you have to do is visit these top websites to find almost anything you want.

The Pirate Bay

Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the Pirate Bay website.
The Pirate Bay website needs no introduction for people familiar with the world of torrent. The Pirate Bay is one of the few top websites currently offering a large database. You will be greeted with cracked software not only for Windows, but for the OSx and Linux as well. If that doesn’t fill your appetite, then Android-based software – a heaven for people who want free games and applications on their cell phones – is also available with many uploaders and seed bundles of the latest android applications to choose from. In addition, the website has a very decent and load free user interface that uploads in no time.
Click here to visit the website.

YTS Torrents

Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the YTS Torrent
YTS became famous for uploading good quality videos with a low disk space usage. They started uploading their content on different torrent websites, and now have one of the most visited torrent websites available. According to a recent study, the website was most visited after The Pirate Bay and Kickass Torrent went bust. The website is simple and gives the user what they need; YTS has a large database of movies and all of them are uploaded in good quality 720p to 1080p HD. Moreover, if you cannot find the movie you’re looking for, the website offers the feature of requesting the movie you want. The YTS team will then upload the content.
Click here to visit the website.


Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the EZTV
This simple yet cool blue torrent website, with its minimal design, is a forum that provides its users with the latest updates and links, with the bonus of virus-free torrent content. The website is more focused on TV shows, having a large database to search through. Anything TV show related is relatively easy to get. The website also provides files for movies and mostly its YIFY movie content.
Click here to visit the website.

ISO Hunt

Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the ISOHUNT
After the original website isohunt.com was shut down, alternative domains brought it back to life; its latest being the ‘dot to’ domain. The website’s recovery was an instant one. Relatively new compared to others on the list, it still attracts thousands of visitors every day. The website is very well designed; everything looks organised and can be found easily. All announcements and news-related topics are posted on their front page, and the website offers a variety of search options like anime, movies, books, software and games.
Click here to visit the website.

Torrent Project

Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the Torrent Project
This website is a common name on the torrent scene, but after the shutdown of Torrentz, it has gained more attention. The website is more like a search engine for torrents and can bring results of more than eight million torrents from their partnered websites.
Click here to visit the website.


Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the 1337X
An unusual name for websites, this however, is another website with a very simple and modern user interface. The website offers verified torrents for movies, games, applications and documentaries, and like many other websites, you can also search for your favourite show using its user-friendly search engine located on the top right side of the website.
Click here to visit the website.

KickAss Torrents

Image Source: Google Image – The logo for the Kickass Torrent
The reason for listing Kickass torrents at the bottom was simple. Currently, the website is in its maintenance stage while they expand their database. However, the website is amazing and simply designed. Like many websites mentioned in this article, the website offers an easy magnet link, which when clicked, opens the torrent directly into the torrent downloading software – such as uTorrent. Furthermore, the files that you download from the website are free from viruses and malware. Those of you who have not heard of this website prior, were probably absent when the website was shut down over a period of time. However, after the interruption, it was brought back to life by the members of its original team.
Click here to visit the website.

Sunday, April 9, 2017


A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for impounding water for various purposes. These purposes may be Irrigation, Hydro-power, Water-supply, Flood Control, Navigation, Fishing and Recreation. Dams may be built to meet the one of the above purposes or they may be constructed fulfilling more than one. As such, it can be classified as: Single-purpose and Multipurpose Dam.

Different parts & terminologies of Dams:

  • Crest: The top of the dam structure. These may in some cases be used for providing a roadway or walkway over the dam.
  • Parapet walls: Low Protective walls on either side of the roadway or walkway on the crest.
  • Heel: Portion of structure in contact with ground or river-bed at upstream side.
  • Toe: Portion of structure in contact with ground or river-bed at downstream side.
  • Spillway: It is the arrangement made (kind of passage) near the top of structure for the passage of surplus/ excessive water from the reservoir.
  • Abutments: The valley slopes on either side of the dam wall to which the left & right end of dam are fixed to.
  • Gallery: Level or gently sloping tunnel like passage (small room like space) at transverse or longitudinal within the dam with drain on floor for seepage water. These are generally provided for having space for drilling grout holes and drainage holes. These may also be used to accommodate the instrumentation for studying the performance of dam.
  • Sluice way: Opening in the structure near the base, provided to clear the silt accumulation in the reservoir.
  • Free board: The space between the highest level of water in the reservoir and the top of the structure.
  • Dead Storage level: Level of permanent storage below which the water will not be withdrawn.
  • Diversion Tunnel: Tunnel constructed to divert or change the direction of water to bypass the dam construction site. The hydraulic structures are built while the river flows through the diversion tunnel.

Factors Affecting Selection Of Type Of Dam

  • Topography
  • Geology and Foundation Conditions
  • Availability of materials
  • Spillway size and location
  • Earthquake zone
  • Height of the Dam
  • Other factors such as cost of construction and maintenance, life of dam, aesthetics etc.

Selection Of Dam Site

  • Suitable foundation must be available.
  • For economy, the length of the dam should be as small as possible, and for a given height, it should store the maximum volume of water.
  • The general bed level at dam site should preferably be higher than that of the river basin. This will reduce the height of the dam.
  • A suitable site for the spillway should be available in the near vicinity.
  • Materials required for the construction of dam should be easily available, either locally or in the near vicinity.
  • The value of land and property submerged by the proposed dam should be as low as possible.
  • The dam site should be easily accessible, so that it can be economically connected to important towns and cities.
  • Site for establishing labor colonies and a healthy environment should be available near the site.

Advantages of dams

  • Clean, efficient, and reliable form of energy.
  • Does not emit any direct pollutants or greenhouse gases.
  • While the initial cost is high, they are very inexpensive to operate.
  • Electricity generated by hydro-electric power plants is the cheapest electricity generated.
  • Dams prevent floods.
  • Dams store water for irrigation in summer seasons and dry months. Many desert areas can now farm due to dams and canals that supply water.
  • Dams supply water for local drinking needs.
  • Allows for fish farming.

Negative impact of dams

  • In flat basins large dams cause flooding of large tracts of land, destroying local animals and habitats.
  • People have to be displaced causing change in life style and customs, even causing emotional scarring. About 40 to 80 million people have been displaced physically by dams worldwide.
  • Large amounts of plant life are submerged and decay anaerobically (in the absence of oxygen) generating greenhouse gases like methane. It is estimated that a hydroelectric power plant produces 3.5 times the amount of greenhouse gases as a thermal power plant burning fossil fuels.
  • The migratory pattern of river animals like salmon and trout are affected.
  • Dams restrict sediments that are responsible for the fertile lands downstream. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides to compensate for the loss in productivity.
  • Salt water intrusion into the deltas means that the saline water cannot be used for irrigation.
  • Large dams are breeding grounds for mosquitoes and cause the spread of disease.
  • Farmers downstream who used to wait for the flooding of the fields to plant their seeds are affected.
  • Dams serve as a heat sink, and the water is hotter than the normal river water. This warm water when released into the river downstream can affect animal life.
  • Peak power operations can change the water level thirty to forty feet in one day and can kill the animals staying at the shorelines.
  • Around 400,000 km2 of land worldwide has been submerged due to the construction of dams.

Solution to the problems

Negative effects on flora, fauna, and the local population can be reduced by the following methods:
  • Fish passages should be created to aid in the migration of the fish.
  • New dam sites should be chosen with the environmental impacts in mind.
  • Local people should be led into confidence and must be suitably re-settled.
  • Proper compensation as per the market rate should be given.
  • Religious monuments of historic significance should be shifted.
  • Endangered species can be relocated.
If the political will to change and do a good job is there a dam can be constructed in a way to minimize its effects on people and the environment.


Dams have made an important and significant contribution to human development, and the benefits derived from them have been considerable. Dam building has been one of the most disputed topics affecting the environment today. The push and pull between the pros and cons have created conflicts among different groups. While dams destroy the nature and people surrounding the area in which they are built, they do provide people with water and products from water. The solutions are minimal, but the damages could be decreased depending on the placement of the dam. 

Monday, March 27, 2017

IBM Discovers a Way of Saving Data on an Atom

The race of making things small will never end and nor will the attempt of keeping strings of ones and zeros in small data storage cards. Keeping this in mind, one of the tech giants has found a way to store information on an atom, making this advancement the first of its kind.
“It is a landmark achievement,” says Sander Otte, a scientist from the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. “At last, magnetic stability has been demonstrated undeniably in a single atom.”
Image Source: Flickr – A view from IBM Research’s Nobel prize-winning microscope of a single atom of Holmium, a rare earth element used as a magnet to store one bit of data. Scientists used its scanning tunnelling microscope to demonstrate technology that could someday store all 35 million songs on iTunes library on the area of a credit card. (Stan Olszewski for IBM).
The discovery was first published in the scientific journal Nature, during the start of this month. IBM, the ones pioneering this storing of information on an atom, have carried out their research at Almaden Lab’s in Silicon Valley. The company says this discovery could change the way in how we store data.
The scientists at IBM discovered a method by which they could magnetise different types of atoms of an uncommon element know as Holmium. Just like a normal magnet indicates a north and south pole, the scientists labelled the north and south pole on Holmium as ones and zeros. The atoms of this rare element are hooked to a different material that keeps them together, and all of this takes places at a chilling -450 degrees Fahrenheit or -268 degrees Celsius.
Image Source: Science Alert – STM scan (96 nm wide, 126 nm tall) of the 1 KB memory, written to a section of Feynman’s lecture, “There is plenty of room at the bottom.
The researchers said they used a sharp and accurately designed pin that passes electrical current through the sets of atoms that react to the currents altering their poles (ones and zeros). This occurs exactly as if the information was stored on a hard drive with magnetic properties. Once the process of passing the current through is complete, they hold their new positions, which allowed the scientists to measure the atoms changed state. This process is similar to mirroring the way a traditional computer reads information to form a hard disk.
The team used a special microscope called the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope. This allowed them to control and view the activity of the atoms.
Image Source: Flickr – Christopher Lutz of IBM Research – Almaden in San Jose, Calif. stands with IBM’s Nobel-prize winning microscope used to store data on a single atom magnet. IBM scientists used its scanning tunnelling microscope to demonstrate technology that could someday store all 35 million songs on iTunes library on the area of a credit card.
Furthermore, the researchers then tried to place the two atoms closer to each other, to see if their magnetic interference would alter the information stored on them; surprising them when it didn’t.
One member of the research group stated that according to the principles of quantum physics, the mechanical effects do not come into play. He further said they have discovered new possibilities for the science of quantum physics by altering and handling every atom in exactly the manner they want.
Image Source: Flickr – Scanning Tunneling Microscope photographed at IBM Research Almaden campus in San Jose, California, on February 28, 2017. (Stan Olszewski for IBM).
According to the magazine, using a number of single atoms is going to increase the amount of data storage possible; and the team is working on making large sets of single atom magnets. However, the new system is still a long way away from everyday use.

Source: The Hacker News, Flickr, Science Alert.

Sunday, March 19, 2017

Babbitt Material PPT

An alloy is a mixture of metals, or a mixture of metal and another element. White metal alloys are those which are light-coloured and generally have a lead or tin base. These alloys are also known as Babbitt metal, or bearing metal, a term which is generally preferred over ‘white metals’. Babbitt metal can be one of several alloys used as a bearing surface in a plain bearing.
Babbitt metal was first created by Isaac Babbitt, from whom it takes its name, in 1839. The original formula for his bearing metal was 89.3% tin, 7.1% antimony and 3.6% copper. This formula is still used by some manufacturers today and marketed as ‘Genuine Babbitt’, or ASTM B-23 Grade 2 Babbitt. It is a soft, white non-ferrous alloy which is used to provide a bearing surface. Bearings are used in engines to support moving mechanical parts and protect them from frictional degradation. Babbitt metal also has properties that help it reduce friction which makes it a good material for use in a plain bearing.
Babbitt metal is soft and can be easily damaged if not treated correctly. This would make it seem unsuitable for use as a bearing surface, however, the structure of the alloy is made up of small, hard crystals which are dispersed in a matrix of softer alloy. This means that as the bearing wears down, the harder crystal is exposed and a path for the lubricant is provided.
Babbitt bearings work by providing a low coefficient of friction, principally achieved by 2 means. First, there is the fact that the bearing itself has a low coefficient of friction so even without lubrication, a Babbitt bearing will have much less friction than another metal such as steel or cast iron. However, by adding lubrication Babbitt bearings can have a significantly low coefficient of friction – even lower than ball bearings.
Until the mid-1950s poured Babbitt bearings were a common feature of automotive appliances. Tin based Babbitts were commonly used as they could stand up to the impact of the connecting rods and crankshaft. Babbitt bearings were also commonly used in factories, before the invention of low cost electrical motors, to distribute power throughout via a central engine. Today, Babbitt is more commonly used as a thin layer covering bearings made of replaceable steel so that it still acts as a bearing surface.

Saturday, March 18, 2017

Biomass Energy PPT

Bioenergy draws on a wide range of potential feedstock materials: forestry and agricultural residues and wastes of many sorts, as well as material grown specifically for energy purposes. The raw materials can be converted to heat for use in buildings and industry, to electricity, or into gaseous or liquid fuels, which can be used in transport, for example. This degree of flexibility is unique amongst the different forms of renewable energy.
Biomass can be converted into electric power through several methods. The most common is direct combustion of biomass material, such as agricultural waste or woody materials. Other options include gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion. Gasification produces a synthesis gas with usable energy content by heating the biomass with less oxygen than needed for complete combustion. Pyrolysis yields bio-oil by rapidly heating the biomass in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic digestion produces a renewable natural gas when organic matter is decomposed by bacteria in the absence of oxygen.
Different methods work bet with different types of biomass. Typically, woody biomass such as wood chips, pellets, and sawdust are combusted or gasified to generate electricity. Corn stover and wheat straw residues are baled for combustion or converted into a gas using an anaerobic digester. Very wet wastes, like animal and human wastes, are converted into a medium-energy content gas in an anaerobic digester. In addition, most other types of biomass can be converted into bio-oil through pyrolysis, which can then be used in boilers and furnaces.