Saturday, December 30, 2017

भारत में सबसे ऊँचा, सबसे बड़ा और सबसे लंबा


  1. भारत में सर्वोच्च पर्वत चोटी: कंचनजंघा, ऊंचाई: 8586 मीटर, राज्य: सिक्किम
  2. पूरी तरह से भारत में स्थित सर्वोच्च पर्वत चोटी: नंदा देवी ऊंचाई:7816 मीटर, राज्य: उत्तराखंड
  3. दक्षिणी भारत में सर्वोच्च पर्वत चोटी: अनामुडी, ऊंचाई: 2,695 मीटर, राज्य: केरला
  4. भारत में सबसे निचला क्षेत्र: कुट्टनाड, राज्य: केरल, ऊंचाई: -2.2 मीटर
  5. भारत की सबसे बड़ी नदी गंगा, लंबाई: 2,525 किमी
  6. भारत में सबसे बड़ा रेगिस्तान: थार, क्षेत्र: 320,000 वर्ग किमी
  7. भारत में सबसे ठंडा स्थान: द्रास, राज्य: जम्मू व कश्मीर, औसत कम: -5.2⁰C, सबसे कम रिकॉर्ड किया गया: -45⁰C
  8. भारत में सबसे गर्म स्थान: फलौदी, राज्य: राजस्थान, उच्चतम रिकॉर्ड किया गया: 51⁰C
  9. भारत में सर्वाधिक वर्षा: मौसिनराम, राज्य: मेघालय, औसत वार्षिक वर्षा: 11,872 मिमी
  10. भारत में सबसे बड़ा उल्का से उत्पन्न गड्ढा: ढाला गड्ढा , स्थान: शिवपुरी जिला, राज्य: मध्य प्रदेश, व्यास: 11 किमी
  11. भारत में सबसे बड़ा वन: अबूझमाड़, राज्य: छत्तीसगढ़, क्षेत्र: 3,900 वर्ग किमी
  12. भारत में सबसे ऊँचा झरना : नोहकलिकाइ, राज्य: मेघालय, कुल ऊंचाई: 340 मी, सबसे ऊंची ड्रॉप: 340 मीटर
  13. भारत में एकमात्र सक्रिय ज्वालामुखी: बैरन द्वीप (अंडमान व नोकोबार द्वीप समूह)
  14. भारत में सबसे बड़ा नदी द्वीप: माजुली, राज्य: असम, नदी: ब्रह्मपुत्र, कुल क्षेत्र:  352 वर्ग किमी
  15. भारत में सबसे बड़ा पठार: दक्कन के पठार, कुल क्षेत्र: 422,000 वर्ग किमी (भारत के भूभाग का 43%)
  16. भारत में सबसे बड़ा राष्ट्रीय पार्क: हेमिस राष्ट्रीय उद्यान, राज्य: जम्मू और कश्मीर, कुल क्षेत्र: 4400 वर्ग किमी
  17. भारत में सबसे बड़ी ताजे पानी की झील: लोकतक झील, राज्य: मणिपुर, कुल क्षेत्र: 287 वर्ग किमी
  18. भारत में सबसे बड़ी खारे पानी की झील: चिलका झील, राज्य: ओडिशा, कुल क्षेत्र: 1,165 वर्ग किमी
  19. भारत में सबसे ऊंचाई पर स्थित झील: चोलामू झील, राज्य सिक्किम, ऊंचाई: 5,330 मीटर
  20. भारत में सबसे बड़ा अंतर्देशीय नमक झील: सांभर झील, राज्य: राजस्थान, कुल क्षेत्र: 230 वर्ग किमी
  21. भारत में सबसे बड़ा मानव निर्मित झील: गोविंद बल्लभ पंत सागर, राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश, बांध: रिहंद बांध
  22. भारत में सबसे बड़ा ग्लेशियर: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, राज्य: जम्मू और कश्मीर, क्षेत्र: 700 वर्ग किमी , लंबाई: 76 किमी
  23. भारत में सबसे लंबा समुद्र बीच: मरीना बीच, जगह: चेन्नई, राज्य: तमिलनाडु, लंबाई: 13 किमी
  24. सबसे बड़ा राज्य (क्षेत्र): राजस्थान, क्षेत्र: 3,42,239 वर्ग किमी
  25. भारत में सबसे बड़ा जिला: कच्छ, राज्य: गुजरात, क्षेत्र: 45,674 वर्ग किमी
  26. भारत में सबसे बड़े कैन्यन: गंडीकोटा, राज्य: आंध्रप्रदेश
  27. भारत में सबसे बड़ा डेल्टा: सुंदरवन, राज्य: पश्चिम बंगाल, क्षेत्र: 4,000 वर्ग किमी
  28. भारत में सबसे बड़ा रामसर साइट (आर्द्रभूमि) भारत में: वेम्बानाड कोल, राज्य: केरल, क्षेत्र: 1,513 वर्ग किमी
  29. भारत की सबसे लंबी नहर: इंदिरा गांधी नहर, राज्य: पंजाब, हरियाणा, राजस्थान, कुल लंबाई: 649 किमी
  30. भारत में सबसे बड़ा प्राणि उद्यान: अरीगनर अन्ना प्राणी उद्यान, जगह: चेन्नई, तमिलनाडु, कुल क्षेत्रफल: 1490 एकड़
  31. भारत में सबसे बड़ा वनस्पति उद्यान: जवाहरलाल नेहरू उष्णकटिबंधीय वनस्पति उद्यान और अनुसंधान संस्थान, जगह: तिरुवनंतपुरम, क्षेत्र: 300 एकड़
  32. भारत की सबसे ऊंची इमारत: द 42, शहर: कोलकाता, ऊँचाई: 268 मीटर
  33. भारत की सबसे लंबी सड़क सुरंग: चेनानी – नैशारी सुरंग, राज्य: जम्मू और कश्मीर, लंबाई: 9.28 किमी
  34. भारत की सबसे लंबी रेलवे सुरंग: पीर पंजाल रेलवे सुरंग, राज्य: जम्मू और कश्मीर, लंबाई: 11.21 किमी
  35. भारत में सबसे लंबी नदी पुल (सड़क मार्ग): भूपेन हज़ारिका सेतु, राज्य: असम, लंबाई: 9.15 किमी
  36. भारत की सबसे लंबी केबल-धारित पुल: विद्यासागर सेतु, जगह: कोलकाता, स्पैन लंबाई: 457.2 मीटर
  37. भारत में सबसे लंबा समुद्री पुल: बांद्रा-वर्ली सी लिंक, शहर: मुंबई, लंबाई: 5.6 किमी
  38. भारत की सबसे लंबी रेलवे पुल: वेम्बानाड रेल पुल, राज्य: केरल, लंबाई: 4.62 किमी
  39. भारत की सबसे लंबी रेल सह सड़क पुल: बोगिबिल पुल, राज्य: असम, लंबाई: 4.94 किमी
  40. भारत की सबसे लंबी उठा हुआ रेल मार्ग: द्वारका सेक्टर 8 मेट्रो स्टेशन-रामा कृष्णा आश्रम मार्ग मेट्रो स्टेशन, राज्य: दिल्ली, लंबाई: 29.80 किमी
  41. भारत की सबसे लंबी फ्लाईओवर: PVNR फ्लाईओवर, शहर: हैदराबाद, लंबाई: 11.6 किमी
  42. भारत की सबसे लंबी एक्सप्रेस वे: आगरा-लखनऊ एक्सप्रेस वे, राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश, लंबाई: 302 किमी
  43. भारत की सबसे लंबी राष्ट्रीय राजमार्ग: राष्ट्रीय राजमार्ग 44, श्रीनगर से कन्याकुमारी, लंबाई: 3745 किमी
  44. भारत में सबसे ऊँचा वाहन योग्य पास: उमलिंग ला, जगह: लेह, जम्मू और कश्मीर, ऊंचाई: 5882 मीटर
  45. भारत की सबसे लंबी रेल मार्ग: डिब्रूगढ़-कन्याकुमारी, ट्रेन: डिब्रूगढ़-कन्याकुमारी विवेक एक्सप्रेस, लंबाई: 4233 किमी
  46. भारत की सबसे लंबी रेलवे प्लेटफ़ॉर्म: गोरखपुर जंक्शन, राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश, लंबाई: 1.36 किमी
  47. भारत में सबसे ऊंचाई पर स्थित रेलवे स्टेशन घूम, राज्य: पश्चिम बंगाल, ऊंचाई: 2,258 मीटर
  48. रेलवे प्लेटफॉर्म की सबसे बड़ी संख्या: हावड़ा जंक्शन, राज्य: पश्चिम बंगाल, प्लेटफॉर्म का सं: 23
  49. भारत में सबसे बड़ा मंदिर परिसर: श्री रंगनाथस्वामी मंदिर, जगह: श्रीरंगम, तमिलनाडु, क्षेत्र: 156 एकड़ (631,000 वर्ग मीटर)
  50. भारत में सबसे बड़ा चर्च: सुमी बैपटिस्ट चर्च, जगह: जुन्हेबोटो, नागालैंड, क्षेत्र: 23,73,476 ft² क्षमता: 8500
  51. सबसे बड़ी मस्जिद: ताज-उल-मस्जिद, जगह: भोपाल, मध्य प्रदेश, क्षेत्र: 430,000 ft², क्षमता: 175,000
  52. भारत में सबसे बड़ा गुरुद्वारा: श्री हरमंदिर वाला (स्वर्ण मंदिर), स्थानः अमृतसर, राज्य: पंजाब
  53. भारत में सबसे बड़ा मठ: तवांग मठ, जगह: तवांग, राज्य: अरूणाचल प्रदेश
  54. भारत में सबसे बड़ा महल: उमैद भवन महल , जगह: जोधपुर, राजस्थान, जटिल क्षेत्र:  26 एकड़
  55. भारत में सबसे बड़ा किला: चित्तौड़ किला, जगह: चित्तौड़गढ़ राज्य: राजस्थान, क्षेत्र: 700 एकड़
  56. भारत में सबसे बड़ा गुंबद: गोल गुम्बज, जगह: बीजापुर राज्य: कर्नाटक, व्यास:  44 मीटर
  57. भारत में सबसे बड़ा दरवाजा: बुलंद दरवाजा, जगह: फतेहपुर-सीकरी, राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश, ऊंचाई: 50 मीटर
  58. भारत में सबसे बड़ी होटल: आई.टी.सी. ग्रैंड चोल, शहर: चेन्नई, राज्य: तमिलनाडु, निर्मित क्षेत्र: 1,600,000 ft²
  59. कमरों के संदर्भ में सबसे बड़ी होटल: मुंबई कन्वेंशन सेंटर होटल  जगह: मुंबई, महाराष्ट्र, कमरे: 759
  60. भारत में सबसे बड़ा शॉपिंग मॉल: लुलु मॉल, शहर: कोच्चि, राज्य: केरल, निर्मित क्षेत्र: 2,500,000 ft²
  61. भारत की सबसे ऊंची मीनार: फतेह बुर्ज, जगह: मोहाली, पंजाब, ऊँचाई: 100 मीटर
  62. भारत में सबसे बड़ा संग्रहालय: इंडियन म्यूजियम , शहर: कोलकाता, पश्चिम बंगाल
  63. भारत में सबसे बड़ी लाइब्रेरी: राष्ट्रीय पुस्तकालय, जगह: कोलकाता, पश्चिम बंगाल, किताबें का संग्रह: 22 लाख
  64. भारत में सबसे बड़ा विधानसभा: उत्तर प्रदेश विधान सभा, सदस्य: 404
  65. भारत में सबसे बड़ी फुटबॉल स्टेडियम: विवेकानंद युवा भारती क्रीडांगन, शहर: कोलकाता, पश्चिम बंगाल, बैठने की क्षमता: 85,000
  66. भारत में सबसे बड़ा क्रिकेट स्टेडियम: ईडन गार्डन, शहर: कोलकाता, पश्चिम बंगाल, बैठने की क्षमता: 90,000
  67. भारत में सबसे बड़ा इंडोर स्टेडियम: इंदिरा गांधी इंडोर स्टेडियम, शहर: नई दिल्ली, बैठने की क्षमता: 15,000
  68. भारत में सबसे ऊंचाई पर स्थित क्रिकेट ग्राउंड: चैल क्रिकेट ग्राउंड, जगह: चैल, हिमाचल प्रदेश, ऊंचाई: 2,250 मीटर
  69. भारत की सबसे लंबी बांध: हीराकुंड बांध, जगह: संबलपुर, ओडिशा, मुख्य अनुभाग: 4.8 किमी, समस्त बांध: 25.8 किमी
  70. भारत में सबसे ऊंचा बांध: टिहरी बांध, जगह: टिहरी, उत्तराखंड, ऊँचाई: 260.5 मीटर
  71. भारत में सबसे बड़ा राज्य  (जनसंख्या): उत्तर प्रदेश, जनसंख्या: 199,812,341 (2011 की जनगणना) 
  72. भारत में सबसे बड़ा शहर: मुंबई, जनसंख्या: 12,442,373 (2011 की जनगणना)
  73. भारत में सबसे बड़ा महानगरीय क्षेत्र: राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र (दिल्ली एनसीआर), क्षेत्र: 58,332 वर्ग किमी, जनसंख्या: 46,069,000 (2011 की जनगणना) 
  74. भारत का सबसे बड़ा गांव: रेवतीपुर, जिला: गाजीपुर, राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश, जनसंख्या: 26,597 (2011 की जनगणना)
  75. भारत में सबसे बड़ा उच्च न्यायालय: इलाहाबाद उच्च न्यायालय, राज्य: उत्तर प्रदेश, न्यायाधीश: 109
  76. भारत में सबसे बड़ा एयरबेस: हिंडोन एयरफोर्स स्टेशन, जगह: गाजियाबाद, उत्तर प्रदेश, कुल क्षेत्र: 55 किमी ²
  77. भारत में सबसे बड़ा हवाई अड्डा: इंदिरा गांधी इंटरनेशनल एयरपोर्ट, शहर: नई दिल्ली, क्षेत्र: 5106 एकड़, कुल यात्री:  57.7 मिलियन (2016-17)
  78. भारत में सबसे बड़ी कंटेनर बंदरगाह: जवाहर लाल नेहरू पोर्ट (न्हावा शेवा), राज्य: महाराष्ट्र, वार्षिक कंटेनर मात्रा: 4.47 लाख TEU (2014-15)
  79. भारत में सबसे बड़ी कार्गो बंदरगाह: दीनदयाल पोर्ट (कांडला), राज्य: गुजरात, वार्षिक कंटेनर मात्रा: 7.9 मिलियन टन
  80. भारत में सबसे बड़ा बस डिपो: मिलेनियम पार्क बस डिपो, राज्य: दिल्ली, क्षेत्र: 60 एकड़, कुल पार्किंग की क्षमता: 1,000 बसें
  81. भारत में सबसे बड़ी बस टर्मिनस: चेन्नई मुफस्सिल बस टर्मिनस, शहर: चेन्नई, क्षेत्र: 37 एकड़, संभालता है: 3000 बसें प्रतिदिन
  82. भारत में सबसे बड़ा विश्वविद्यालय (सन्निहित क्षेत्र): जी बी पंत यूनिवर्सिटी ऑफ एग्रीकल्चर एंड टेक्नोलॉजी, जगह: पंतनगर, उत्तराखंड, क्षेत्र: 12,661 एकड़ (51.24 वर्ग किमी)
  83. भारत में सबसे बड़ा विश्वविद्यालय (छात्र जनसंख्या): इंदिरा गांधी नेशनल ओपन यूनिवर्सिटी (इग्नू), स्थान: नई दिल्ली, छात्र: 4 मिलियन +
  84. भारत में सबसे बड़ा स्कूल: सिटी मोन्टेसरी स्कूल, स्थान: लखनऊ, उत्तर प्रदेश, छात्र: 52,000
  85. भारत की सबसे लंबी केबल कार सिस्टम: ऑली-जोशीमठ रोपवे, स्थान: ऑली, उत्तराखंड, लंबाई: 4 किमी
  86. भारत में सबसे ऊँचा केबल कार सिस्टम: गुलमार्ग गोंडोला, स्थान: गुलमार्ग, जम्मू और कश्मीर, उच्चतम बिंदु: 3979 मीटर
  87. भारत में सबसे बड़ा मल्टीप्लेक्स: मायाजाल, स्थान: चेन्नई, तमिलनाडू, कुल स्क्रीन: 16
  88. भारत में सबसे बड़ी फिल्म स्टूडियो कॉम्प्लेक्स: रामोजी फिल्म सिटी , शहर: हैदराबाद, तेलागना, क्षेत्रः 2000 एकड़
  89. सबसे बड़ी कंपनी: इंडियन ऑयल कॉर्पोरेशन लिमिटेड, मुख्यालय: नई दिल्ली, राजस्व: US$ 61 अरब
  90. भारत में सबसे बड़ा  बैंक: भारतीय स्टेट बैंक, मुख्यालय : मुंबई, राजस्व: US $ 47 बिलियन, ग्राहक: 420 मिलियन
  91. भारत की सबसे लंबी पाइपलाइन: कांडला-भटिंडा पाइप लाइन, लंबाई: 1443 किमी
  92. भारत में सबसे ऊंची प्रतिमा: वीरा अभय अंजनेया हनुमान स्वामी, जगह: विजयवाड़ा, राज्य: आंध्र प्रदेश, ऊँचाई: 41 मीटर (135 फीट)
  93. भारत की सबसे बड़ी तेल रिफाइनरी जामनगर रिफाइनरी, राज्य: गुजरात, क्षमता: 1,240,000 बैरल प्रतिदिन, क्षेत्र: 7,500 एकड़
  94. भारत में सबसे बड़ा सौर संयंत्र: कुरनूल अल्ट्रा मेगा सोलर पार्क, जगह: कुरनूल, राज्य: आंध्र प्रदेश, क्षमता: 1000 मेगावाट, क्षेत्र: 24 वर्ग किमी
  95. भारत में सबसे बड़े परमाणु ऊर्जा संयंत्र: कुडनकुलम परमाणु ऊर्जा संयंत्र, राज्य: तमिलनाडु, क्षमता: 2,000 मेगावाट 
  96. भारत में सबसे बड़े थर्मल पावर प्लांट: विंध्याचल थर्मल पावर प्लांट, जगह: सिंगरौली, राज्य: मध्य प्रदेश क्षमता: 4760 मेगावाट
  97. भारत में सबसे बड़ी पनबिजली संयंत्र: कोयना पनबिजली परियोजना, राज्य: महाराष्ट्र, क्षमता: 1,960 मेगावाट
  98. भारत में सबसे बड़ा पवन ऊर्जा फ़ार्म: मुप्पंडल पवन ऊर्जा फ़ार्म , राज्य: तमिलनाडु, क्षमता: 1,500 मेगावाट

Largest, Highest, Tallest, Longest in India (Latest)

Largest, Highest, Tallest, Longest in India 2018

  1. HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN INDIA: KANGCHENJUNGA, ELEVATION: 8,586 m, STATE: SIKKIM
  2. HIGHEST MOUNTAIN ENTIRELY WITHIN INDIA: NANDA DEVI, ELEVATION: 7,816 m, STATE: UTTARAKHAND
  3. HIGHEST MOUNTAIN PEAK IN SOUTHERN INDIA: ANAMUDI, ELEVATION: 2,695 m, STATE: KERALA
  4. LOWEST REGION IN INDIA: KUTTANAD, STATE: KERALA, ELEVATION: -2.2m
  5. LARGEST RIVER IN INDIA: GANGA, LENGTH: 2,525 km
  6. LARGEST DESERT IN INDIA: THAR, AREA: 320,000 km²
  7. COLDEST PLACE IN INDIA: DRAS, STATE: JAMMU & KASHMIR, Average low: -5.2⁰C, Recorded low: -45⁰C
  8. HOTTEST PLACE IN INDIA: PHALODI, STATE: RAJASTHAN, Recorded High: 51⁰C
  9. HIGHEST RAINFALL IN INDIA: MAWSYNRAM, STATE: MEGHALAYA, Average Annual Rainfall: 11,872 mm
  10. LARGEST METEORIC CRATER IN INDIA: DHALA CRATER, LOCATION: SHIVPURI DISTRICT, STATE: MADHYA PRADESH, DIAMETER: 11 km
  11. LARGEST FOREST IN INDIA: ABUJMARH, STATE: CHHATTISGARH, AREA: 3,900 km²
  12. HIGHEST WATERFALLS IN INDIA: NOHKALIKAI FALLS, STATE: MEGHALAYA, TOTAL HEIGHT: 340 m, TALLEST DROP: 340 m
  13. THE ONLY ACTIVE VOLCANO IN INDIA: BARREN ISLAND(A & N ISLANDS)
  14. LARGEST RIVER ISLAND IN INDIA: MAJULI, STATE: ASSAM, RIVER: BRAHMAPUTRA, TOTAL AREA: 352 km²
  15. LARGEST PLATEAU IN INDIA: DECCAN PLATEAU, TOTAL AREA: 422,000 km² (43 % of India's Landmass)
  16. LARGEST NATIONAL PARK IN INDIA: HEMIS NATIONAL PARK, STATE: JAMMU & KASHMIR, TOTAL AREA: 4400 km²
  17. LARGEST FRESHWATER  LAKE IN INDIA: LOKTAK LAKE, STATE: MANIPUR, TOTAL AREA: 287 km²
  18. LARGEST SALTWATER LAKE IN INDIA: CHILIKA LAKE, STATE: ODISHA, TOTAL AREA: 1,165 Km²
  19. HIGHEST LAKE IN INDIA: CHOLAMU LAKE, STATE: SIKKIM, ALTITUDE: 5,330 m
  20. LARGEST INLAND SALT LAKE IN INDIA: SAMBHAR LAKE, STATE: RAJASTHAN, TOTAL AREA: 230 km²
  21. LARGEST MAN-MADE LAKE IN INDIA: GOVIND BALLABH PANT SAGAR, STATE: UTTAR PRADESH, DAM: RIHAND DAM
  22. LARGEST GLACIER IN INDIA: SIACHEN GLACIER, STATE: JAMMU & KASHMIR, AREA: 700 km², LENGTH: 76 km
  23. LONGEST BEACH IN INDIA: MARINA BEACH, PLACE: CHENNAI, STATE: TAMIL NADU, LENGTH: 13 km
  24. LARGEST STATE AREA : RAJASTHAN,AREA: 3,42,239 km²
  25. LARGEST DISTRICT IN INDIA: KUTCHH, STATE: GUJARAT, AREA: 45,674 km²
  26. LARGEST CANYON IN INDIA: GANDIKOTA, STATE: ANDHRA PRADESH
  27. LARGEST DELTA IN INDIA: SUNDARBANS, STATE: WEST BENGAL, AREA: 4,000 km²
  28. LARGEST RAMSAR SITE (WETLAND) IN INDIA: VEMBANAD KOL, STATE: KERALA, AREA: 1,513 Km²
  29. LONGEST CANAL IN INDIA: INDRA GANDHI CANAL, STATE: PUNJAB, HARYANA, RAJASTHAN, TOTAL LENGTH: 649 km
  30. LARGEST ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN IN INDIA:  ARIGNAR ANNA ZOOLOGICAL PARK, PLACE: CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, TOTAL AREA: 1490 ACRE
  31. LARGEST BOTANICAL GARDEN IN INDIA: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TROPICAL BOTANIC GARDEN AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE, PLACE: TRIVANDRUM, AREA: 300 ACRE
  32. TALLEST BUILDING IN INDIA: THE 42, CITY: KOLKATA, HEIGHT: 268 m
  33. LONGEST ROAD TUNNEL IN INDIA: CHENANI-NASHRI TUNNEL, STATE: JAMMU & KASHMIR, LENGTH: 9.28 km
  34. LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNEL IN INDIA:  PIR PANJAL RAILWAY TUNNEL, STATE: JAMMU & KASHMIR, LENGTH: 11.21 km
  35. LONGEST RIVER BRIDGE (ROADWAYS) IN INDIA: BHUPEN HAZARIKA SETU, STATE: ASSAM, LENGTH: 9.15 km
  36. LONGEST CABLE-STAYED BRIDGE IN INDIA: VIDYASAGAR SETU, PLACE: KOLKATA, SPAN LENGTH: 457.2 m
  37. LONGEST SEA BRIDGE IN INDIA: BANDRA–WORLI SEA LINK, CITY: MUMBAI, LENGTH: 5.6 km
  38. LONGEST RAILWAY BRIDGE IN INDIA: VEMBANAD RAIL BRIDGE, STATE: KERALA, LENGTH: 4.62 km
  39. LONGEST RAIL CUM ROAD BRIDGE IN INDIA: BOGIBEEL BRIDGE, STATE: ASSAM, LENGTH: 4.94 km
  40. LONGEST ELEVATED RAIL ROUTE IN INDIA: DWARKA SECTOR 8 METRO STATION-RAMA KRISHNA ASHRAM MARG METRO STATION, STATE: DELHI, LENGTH: 29.80 km
  41. LONGEST  FLYOVER IN INDIA: PVNR FLYOVER, CITY: HYDERABAD, LENGTH: 11.6 km
  42. LONGEST  EXPRESSWAY IN INDIA: AGRA-LUCKNOW EXPRESSWAY, STATE: UTTAR PRADESH, LENGTH: 302 km
  43. LONGEST  NATIONAL HIGHWAY IN INDIA: NH-44, FROM: SRINAGAR (J & K)   TO: KANYAKUMARI (T.N.), LENGTH: 3,745 km
  44. HIGHEST MOTORABLE PASS IN INDIA: UMLING LA, PLACE: LEH, JAMMU & KASHMIR, ELEVATION: 5,882 m
  45. LONGEST  TRAIN ROUTE IN INDIA: DIBRUGARH-KANYAKUMARI, TRAIN: DIBRUGARH-KANYAKUMARI VIVEK EXPRESS, LENGTH: 4,233 km
  46. LONGEST  RAILWAY PLATFORM IN INDIA: GORAKHPUR JUNCTION, STATE: UTTAR PRADESH, LENGTH: 1.36 km
  47. HIGHEST RAILWAY STATION IN INDIA: GHUM, STATE: WEST BENGAL, ALTITUDE: 2,258 m
  48. HIGHEST NUMBER OF RAILWAY PLATFORMS: HOWRAH JUNCTION, STATE: WEST BENGAL, NO. OF PLATFORMS: 23
  49. LARGEST  TEMPLE  COMPLEX IN INDIA: SRI RANGANATHASWAMY TEMPLE, PLACE: SRIRANGAM, TAMIL NADU, AREA: 156 ACRES (631,000 m3)
  50. LARGEST  CHURCH IN INDIA: SUMI BAPTIST CHURCH, PLACE: ZUNHEBOTO,  NAGALAND, AREA: 23,73,476 ft²  CAPACITY: 8,500
  51. LARGEST  MOSQUE: TAJ-UL-MASJID, PLACE: BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH, AREA: 430,000 ft², CAPACITY: 175,000
  52. LARGEST  GURUDWARA IN INDIA: SRI HARMANDIR SAHIB (GOLDEN TEMPLE), PLACE: AMRITSAR, STATE: PUNJAB
  53. LARGEST  MONASTERY IN INDIA: TAWANG MONASTERY, PLACE: TAWANG, STATE: ARUNACHAL PRADESH
  54. LARGEST PALACE IN INDIA: UMAID BHAWAN PALACE, PLACE: JODHPUR, RAJASTHAN, COMPLEX AREA: 26 ACRE
  55. LARGEST FORT: CHITTOR FORT, PLACE: CHITTORGARH, STATE: RAJASTHAN, AREA: 700 ACRE
  56. LARGEST DOME IN INDIA: GOL GUMBAZ, PLACE: BIJAPUR, STATE: KARNATAKA, DIAMETER: 44 m
  57. LARGEST GATE IN INDIA: BULAND DARWAZA, PLACE: FATEHPUR-SIKRI, STATE: UTTAR PRADESH, HEIGHT: 50 m
  58. LARGEST HOTEL IN INDIA: ITC GRAND CHOLA, CITY: CHENNAI, STATE: TAMIL NADU, BUILT-UP AREA: 1,600,000 ft²
  59. LARGEST HOTEL IN TERMS OF ROOMS: RENAISSANCE MUMBAI CONVENTION CENTRE HOTEL, PLACE: MUMBAI, MAHARASTRA, ROOMS: 759
  60. LARGEST SHOPPING MALL IN INDIA: LULU MALL, CITY: KOCHI, STATE: KERALA, BUILT-UP AREA: 2,500,000 ft²
  61. TALLEST MINARET IN INDIA: FATEH BURJ, PLACE: MOHALI, PUNJAB, HEIGHT: 100 m
  62. LARGEST MUSEUM IN INDIA: INDIAN MUSEUM, CITY: KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL
  63. LARGEST LIBRARY IN INDIA: NATIONAL  LIBRARY, PLACE: KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL, COLLECTION OF BOOKS: 2.2 MILLION
  64. LARGEST STATE ASSEMBLY IN INDIA: UTTAR PRADESH LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, MEMBERS: 404
  65. LARGEST FOOTBALL STADIUM IN INDIA: VIVEKANANDA YUBA BHARATI KRIRANGAN, CITY: KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL, SEATING CAPACITY: 85,000
  66. LARGEST CRICKET STADIUM IN INDIA: EDEN GARDENS, CITY: KOLKATA, WEST BENGAL, SEATING CAPACITY: 90,000
  67. LARGEST INDOOR STADIUM IN INDIA: INDRA GANDHI INDOOR STADIUM, CITY: NEW DELHI, SEATING CAPACITY: 15,000
  68. HIGHEST CRICKET GROUND IN INDIA: CHAIL CRICKET GROUND, PLACE: CHAIL, HIMACHAL PRADESH, ELEVATION: 2,250 m
  69. LONGEST DAM IN INDIA: HIRAKUD DAM, PLACE: SAMBALPUR, ODISHA, MAIN SECTION: 4.8 km, ENTIRE DAM: 25.8 km
  70. HIGHEST DAM IN INDIA: TEHRI DAM, PLACE: TEHRI, UTTARAKHAND, HEIGHT: 260.5 m
  71. LARGEST STATE IN INDIA (POPULATION): UTTAR PRADESH, POPULATION: 199,812,341 (2011 CENSUS)
  72. LARGEST CITY IN INDIA (POPULATION) : MUMBAI, POPULATION: 12,442,373 (2011 CENSUS)
  73. LARGEST METROPOLITAN AREA IN INDIA : NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION (DELHI NCR), AREA: 58,332 km², POPULATION: 46,069,000 (2011 CENSUS)
  74. LARGEST VILLAGE IN INDIA: REOTIPUR, DISTRICT: GHAZIPUR, STATE: UTTAR PRADESH, POPULATION: 26,597 (2011 CENSUS)
  75. LARGEST HIGH COURT IN INDIA: ALLAHABAD HIGH COURT, STATE: UTTAR PRADESH, JUDGES: 109
  76. LARGEST AIRBASE IN INDIA: HINDON AIRFORCE STATION, PLACE: GHAZIABAD, UTTAR PRADESH, TOTAL AREA: 55 km²
  77. LARGEST AIRPORT IN INDIA: INDIRA GANDHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, CITY: NEW DELHI , AREA: 5,106 ACRE, TOTAL PASSENGERS: 57.7 million (2016-17)
  78. LARGEST CONTAINER PORT IN INDIA: JAWAHARLAL NEHRU PORT (NHAVA SHEVA), STATE: MAHARASHTRA, ANNUAL CONTAINER VOLUME: 4.47 million TEU (2014-15)
  79. LARGEST CARGO PORT IN INDIA:  DEENDAYAL PORT (KANDLA), STATE: GUJARAT, ANNUAL CONTAINER VOLUME: 7.9 million ton
  80. LARGEST BUS DEPOT IN INDIA: MILLENNIUM PARK BUS DEPOT, STATE: DELHI    AREA: 60 ACRE, TOTAL PARKING CAPACITY: 1,000 BUSES
  81. LARGEST BUS TERMINUS IN INDIA: CHENNAI MOFUSSIL BUS TERMINUS, CITY: CHENNAI, AREA: 37 ACRE , HANDLES: 3000 BUSES/DAY
  82. LARGEST UNIVERSITY IN INDIA (CONTIGUOUS AREA) : G. B. PANT UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY, PLACE: PATNAGAR, UTTARAKHAND, AREA: 12,661 ACRE (51.24 km²)
  83. LARGEST UNIVERSITY IN INDIA (STUDENT POPULATION) : INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY (IGNOU), LOCATION: NEW DELHI, STUDENTS: 4 MILLION+
  84. LARGEST SCHOOL IN INDIA : CITY MONTESSORI SCHOOL, LOCATION: LUCKNOW, UTTAR PRADESH, STUDENTS: 52,000
  85. LONGEST CABLE CAR SYSTEM IN INDIA : AULI-JOSHIMATH ROPEWAY, LOCATION: AULI, UTTARAKHAND, LENGTH: 4 km
  86. HIGHEST CABLE CAR SYSTEM IN INDIA: GULMARG GONDOLA, LOCATION: GULMARG, JAMMU & KASHMIR, HIGHEST POINT: 3,979 m
  87. LARGEST MULTIPLEX IN INDIA: MAYAJAAL, LOCATION: CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, TOTAL SCREENS: 16
  88. LARGEST FILM STUDIO COMPLEX IN INDIA: RAMOJI FILM CITY, CITY: HYDERABAD, TELANGANA, AREA: 2000 ACRE
  89. LARGEST COMPANY: INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED, HQ: NEW DELHI, REVENUE: US$ 61 BILLION
  90. LARGEST BANK IN INDIA: STATE BANK OF INDIA, HQ: MUMBAI, REVENUE: US$ 47 BILLION, CUSTOMERS: 420 MILLION
  91. LONGEST PIPELINE IN INDIA: KANDLA-BHATINDA PIPELINE, LENGTH: 1443 km
  92. TALLEST STATUE IN INDIA: VEERA ABHAYA ANJANEYA HANUMAN SWAMI, PLACE: VIJAYAWADA, STATE: ANDHRA PRADESH, HEIGHT: 41 m (135 ft)
  93. LARGEST OIL REFINERY IN INDIA: JAMNAGAR REFINERY, STATE: GUJARAT, CAPACITY: 1,240,000 barrels/day, AREA: 7,500 ACRE
  94. LARGEST SOLAR PLANT IN INDIA: KURNOOL ULTRA MEGA SOLAR PARK, PLACE: KURNOOL, STATE: ANDHRA PRADESH, CAPACITY: 1,000 MW, AREA: 24 km²
  95. LARGEST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDIA: KUDANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, STATE: TAMIL NADU, CAPACITY: 2,000 MW
  96. LARGEST THERMAL POWER PLANT IN INDIA: VINDHYACHAL THERMAL POWER PLANT, PLACE: SINGRAULI, STATE: MADHYA PRADESH, CAPACITY: 4,760 MW
  97. LARGEST HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT IN INDIA: KOYNA HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, STATE: MAHARASTRA , CAPACITY: 1,960 MW
  98. LARGEST WIND FARM IN INDIA: MUPPANDAL WINDFARM, STATE: TAMIL NADU, CAPACITY: 1,500 MW
  99. LARGEST OPENCAST MINE IN INDIA: GEVRA OPENCAST MINE, COALFIELD: KORBA, STATE: CHHATTISGARH, CAPACITY: 35 million tonnes/annum 

Monday, November 20, 2017

This is how living Earth breathes.

From space, NASA satellites can see our Earth breathe.

Life. It's the one thing that, so far, makes Earth unique among the thousands of other planets we've discovered. Since the fall of 1997, NASA satellites have continuously and globally observed all plant life at the surface of the land and ocean. During the week of Nov. 13-17, NASA is sharing stories and videos about how this view of life from space is furthering knowledge of our home planet and the search for life on other worlds. Twenty years of satellite data have helped scientists track phytoplankton populations in the ocean, study changing vegetation in the Arctic reaches of North America, monitor crop yields and more.
Since the fall of 1997, NASA satellites have continuously and globally observed all plant life at the surface of the land and ocean. Twenty years of satellite data has helped scientists track phytoplankton populations in the ocean, study changing vegetation in the Arctic reaches of North America, monitor crop yields and more.
Image and Video Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) Seminar Report Download

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: INTRODUCTION

Globalization, fickling market requirements and modern lifestyle trends have put up the tremendous challenge to manufacturing industries. In the current business scenario, the competitiveness of any manufacturing industry is determined by its ability to respond quickly to the rapidly changing market and to produce high-quality products at low costs.
However, the product cost is no longer the predominant factor affecting the manufacturers’ perception. Other competitive factors such as flexibility, quality, efficient delivery and customer satisfaction are drawing the equal attention. Manufacturing industries are striving to achieve these capabilities through automation, robotics and other innovative concepts such as just-in-time (JIT), Production planning and control (PPC), enterprise resource planning (ERP) etc. Flexible manufacturing is a concept that allows manufacturing systems to be built to highly customized production requirements. The issues such as reduction of inventories and market-response time to meet customer demands, flexibility to adapt to changes in the market, reducing the cost of products and services to grab more market shares, etc have made it almost obligatory to many firms to switch over to flexible manufacturing systems (FMSs) as a viable means to accomplish the above requirements while producing consistently good quality and cost-effective products. 
FMS is actually an automated set of numerically controlled machine tools and material handling systems, capable of performing a wide range manufacturing operations with quick tooling and instruction changeovers.

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a group of numerically-controlled machine tools, interconnected by a central control system. The various machining cells are interconnected, via loading and unloading stations, by an automated transport system. Operational flexibility is enhanced by the ability to execute all manufacturing tasks on numerous product designs in small quantities and with faster delivery. It has been described as an automated job shop and as a miniature automated factory. Simply stated, it is an automated production system that produces one or more families of parts in a flexible manner. Today, this prospect of automation and flexibility presents the possibility of producing nonstandard parts to create a competitive advantage.
The concept of flexible manufacturing systems evolved during the 1960s when robots, programmable controllers, and computerized numerical controls brought a controlled environment to the factory floor in the form of numerically-controlled and direct-numerically-controlled machines.
For the most part,  flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is limited to firms involved in the batch production or job shop environments. Normally, batch producers have two kinds of equipment from which to choose: dedicated machinery or unautomated, general-purpose tools. Dedicated machinery results in cost savings but lacks flexibility. General purpose machines such as lathes, milling machines, or drill presses are all costly, and may not reach full capacity. Flexible manufacturing systems provide the batch manufacturer with another option—one that can make batch manufacturing just as efficient and productive as mass production.

OBJECTIVES OF FMS

Stated formally, the general objectives of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS) are to approach the efficiencies and economies of scale normally associated with mass production, and to maintain the flexibility required for small- and medium-lot-size production of a variety of parts.
Two kinds of manufacturing systems fall within the flexible manufacturing system (FMS) spectrum. These are assembly systems, which assemble components into final products and forming systems, which actually form components or final products. A generic  flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is said to consist of the following components:
  1. A set of workstations containing machine tools that do not require significant set-up time or change-over between successive jobs. Typically, these machines perform milling, boring, drilling, tapping, reaming, turning, and grooving operations.
  2. A material-handling system that is automated and flexible in that it permits jobs to move between any pair of machines so that any job routing can be followed.
  3. A network of supervisory computers and microprocessors that perform some or all of the following tasks: (a) directs the routing of jobs through the system; (b) tracks the status of all jobs in progress so it is known where each job is to go next; (c) passes the instructions for the processing of each operation to each station and ensures that the right tools are available for the job; and (d) provides essential monitoring of the correct performance of operations and signals problems requiring attention.
  4. Storage, locally at the workstations, and/or centrally at the system level.
  5. The jobs to be processed by the system. In operating a  flexible manufacturing system (FMS), the worker enters the job to be run at the supervisory computer, which then downloads the part programs to the cell control or NC controller.

BENEFITS OF FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

The potential benefits from the implementation and utilization of a flexible manufacturing system have been detailed by numerous researchers on the subject. A review of the literature reveals many tangible and intangible benefits that FMS users extol. These benefits include:

  • less waste
  • fewer workstations
  • quicker changes of tools, dies, and stamping machinery
  • reduced downtime
  • better control over quality
  • reduced labor
  • more efficient use of machinery
  • work-in-process inventory reduced
  • increased capacity
  • increased production flexibility

The savings from these benefits can be sizable. Enough so that Ford has poured $4,400,000 into overhauling its Torrence Avenue plant in Chicago, giving it flexible manufacturing capability. This will allow the factory to add new models in as little as two weeks instead of two months or longer. Richard Truett reports, in Automotive News, that the flexible manufacturing systems used in five of Ford Motor Company's plants will yield a $2.5 billion savings. Truett also reports that, by the year 2010, Ford will have converted 80 percent of its plants to flexible manufacturing.

Click Here to Download Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) Seminar Report

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Sziklai Pair Seminar Report

Being known by a variety of names the Sziklai pair may also be known as the complementary feedback pair (CFP) or "compound transistor", and as a "pseudo-Darlington". The Sziklai pair is a configuration of two bipolar transistors, similar to a Darlington pair. In contrast to the Darlington arrangement, the Sziklai pair has one NPN and one PNP transistor, and so it is sometimes also called the "complementary Darlington". The configuration is named for its early popularizer, George C. Sziklai.

What is a Sziklai?

In essence, a high gain super transistor, somewhat similar to a Darlington. But there are major differences. Unlike Darlingtons, there is some voltage gain with Sziklais. Another unique feature is local feedback.

Why is it not as popular as EF?

Basically, more difficult to design then EF. When local feedback is nested in a global feedback, an amplifier is more prone to instability. In other words, it is easier to break out into high-frequency oscillations. But a well designed Sziklai Output can often be outstanding.

Characteristics of Sziklai Pair 

Sziklai pair seminar report
Sziklai Pair Configuration (NPN)
The current gain of the pair is similar to that of a Darlington pair and is the product of the current gains of the two transistors. The figure above illustrates an NPN-PNP pair that acts like a single NPN transistor overall. By replacing Q1 with a PNP transistor and Q2 with an NPN transistor the pair will act like a PNP transistor overall. (Just exchange the two arrows in the figure to visualize the PNP-NPN pair.)
Sziklai Pair seminar report
Sziklai Pair Configuration (PNP)
Like the Darlington, it is wise to include a bypass resistor.
Sziklai Pair seminar report
Sziklai Pair with Bypass Resistor

Sziklai compound pair features

Although the Darlington is used in many applications, the Sziklai or compound pair has a number of advantages and can be used to good effect in a number of applications. Some of its features include:

  • Only a single base emitter drop between the overall base and emitter of the compound transistor.
  • Higher saturation voltage than a Darlington.
  • Very slightly lower gain than a Darlington
  • Can be used in a pseudo-complementary output with a Darlington - a true complementary pair would use both of the same circuit configurations. This configuration, which uses three NPN transistors and one PNP transistor. It offers a number of advantages including:
    • Previously silicon PNP transistors have been more costly than their NPN equivalents because of processing techniques and also the volume usage, especially for the power transistor versions.
    • The performance of the lower "pull" pair, which uses a single NPN transistor, more closely matches the performance of the upper push pair, which consists of two NPN transistors (PNP transistors have lower carrier mobility). A true complementary pair would use all NPN for the lower pair and all PNP for the upper pair.
  • As many PNP transistors with almost equivalent performance to their NPN counterparts are now available, the advantages of using the Sziklai / compound pair are less than they used to be.
  • The Sziklai pair is known to provide a better level of linearity than the Darlington pair which can be advantageous especially in audio applications.

Applications

In a typical application, the Sziklai pair acts somewhat like a single transistor with the same type (e.g. NPN) as Q1 and with a very high current gain (β). The emitter of Q2 acts the role of a collector. Hence the emitter of Q2 is labelled "C" in the figure to the right. Likewise, in a typical application, the collector of Q2 (also connected to the emitter of Q1) plays the role of an emitter and is thus labelled "E." As with a Darlington pair, a resistor (e.g., 100Ω–1kΩ) is usually connected between Q2's emitter and base to improve its turn-off time (i.e., its performance for high-frequency signals).

Advantages

One advantage over the Darlington pair is that the base turn-on voltage is only about 0.6V or half of the Darlington's 1.2V nominal turn-on voltage. Like the Darlington, it can saturate only to 0.6V, which is a drawback for high-power stages.

Sziklai-based output stages

Sziklai pairs are often used in the output stages of power amplifiers due to their advantages both in linearity and bandwidth when compared with more common Darlington emitter follower output stages. They are especially advantageous in amplifiers where the intended load does not require the use of parallel devices.
Sziklai pairs can also have the benefit of superior thermal stability under the right conditions. In contrast to the traditional Darlington configuration, quiescent current is much more stable with respect to changes in the temperature of the higher power output transistors vs the lower power drivers. This means that a Sziklai output stage in a class AB amplifier requires only that the bias servo transistor or diodes be thermally matched to the lower power driver transistors; they need not (and should not) be placed on the main heatsink. This potentially simplifies the design and implementation of a stable class AB amplifier, reducing the need for emitter resistors, significantly reducing the number of components which must be in thermal contact with the heatsink and reducing the likelihood of thermal runaway.
Optimal quiescent current in an amplifier using Sziklai pairs also tends to be much lower than in Darlington-based output stages, on the order of 10mA vs. 100mA or more for some emitter follower output stages. This means that idle power consumption is on the order of a few watts versus tens of watts for the same performance in many cases. This is a very compelling reason to use the Sziklai pair in cases where output power is moderate (25-100W), fidelity is critical and relatively low idle power consumption is desired.

Quasi-complementary output stages

Historically, designers frequently used the "quasi-complementary" configuration, which uses a Darlington push pair (i.e., two NPN transistors) and a Sziklai pull pair (i.e., one PNP and one NPN transistor). This configuration, which uses three NPN transistors and one PNP transistor, is advantageous because while the first transistors and the most common small signal transistors for decades were PNP Germanium devices, silicon PNP power transistors were slower to develop than and have historically been more expensive than their NPN counterparts. Alternately, if a germanium PNP device were used, it would have significantly different characteristics. In the Quasi-complementary topology, the performance of the lower pull pair, which used a single NPN transistor, more closely matched the performance of the upper push pair, which consists of two NPN transistors and an identical power device.
While for decades the Quasi-complimentary output stage made sense, recently PNP and NPN power transistors have become roughly equally available and have more closely matched performance characteristics, and so modern audio power amplifiers often use equivalent topologies for both pairs, either both Darlington emitter follower or both Sziklai pair.

Sziklai compound pair gain

Although the gain of the Sziklai pair or compound pair is very nearly the same as that of the Darlington, it is not quite the same. The gain of the Darlington is given by the formula below:
The gain of the Sziklai pair is slightly different as there is no individual contribution from Q2 as seen below.

In view of the fact that the terms βQi and βQ2 on their own can be neglected, we obtain the more familiar equation which can be used for both the Darlington and Sziklai pairs.

In view of its characteristics, the Sziklai pair or compound pair finds uses in circuits in a number of areas including audio amplifier outputs, general audio amplifiers and also for digital switching.

These are some information about Sziklai Pair to make a seminar report. Kindly search the web for more information about Sziklai Pair.